This certificate that Elder William C. Moody has been appointed to preside over you during your passage to New York and that Elder William Ajax has been appointed his counselor to assist him in the duties of the presidency, you are exhorted, beloved Saints, to receive these brethren in the capacity to which they were appointed and receive their counsels with joy and gladness that you may have peace on board and blessings during your passage over the ocean and continue to grow in all that exalts the righteous in the estimation of your God and secures to them his constant favor and protection. One and all of the Saints are particularly requested to aid in preserving cleanliness and good order that health and happiness may reign predominant among you, remembering your prayers at the appointed times so the Lord may not forget you when you most need his arm outstretched for your protection. We are your brethren.
Amasa M. Lyman
Charles C. Rich
George Q. Cannon
Presidents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Great Britain and adjacent countries.
Several days passed. The Saints were coming on board and then beginning
Sunday, 18th. Weather foggy in the morning but the fog cleared about noon and the rest of the day was fine. I prayed in the morning. The meeting was held at 2:00 p.m. which was commenced through prayer by Brother Hudson. Brother [William] Moody then complimented the Saints on their good conduct during their stay on the ship. Showed them what a far more comfortable place they had than immigrants in general. Exhorted them to still continue their good course, be obedient to their leaders and urged them to economize their food that it might be serviceable to them when they would land in [p.86] America. He also expressed his belief that all the company would reach Zion in safety, if they would only do what they would be told, and keep in good feelings. I and Brothers R. [Robert] Gregory and John Hudson followed him, and gave such instructions as we deemed necessary. Just before the meeting was closed, Brother Moody blessed Ann Jane Jones Parry, the daughter of Brother Edward Parry and Sister Ann Parry, formerly of Llandudno. She was born at 31 North Hamston Street, Liverpool, at past 12 a.m. April 21st. Meeting closed through prayer by Brother [William] Moody. Sister [Mary] Dyer ill all day. Brothers P. De La Mare and E. [Henry] Henriod came on board about 4 p.m. Wrote a letter to John Parry, Meliden; also completed one to Brother Smith, in Burmingham. All of us assembled together about 7 p.m., a little previous to the departure of Brothers De La Mare and Henriod, and sung several tunes on deck. Brother H. [Henry] Henriod prayed and then Brother Moody gave a few instructions, complaining of some unknown persons having taken water from some of the brethren, and expressing a hope that such conduct would be discontinued.
Monday, 19th. Brother Robert Trenchard prayed this morning. The ship was towed from her moorings about 10 a.m., from opposite Egremont [LOCATION UNCLEAR] by the tug-boat "United States." We sang several tunes on deck while she passed New Brighton. In less than half an hour after we passed said place, North Wales unfolded to our view. I posted or rather sent two letters with the pilot about noon; one to my father-in-law, and one to my father and mother. We had a fine view of North Wales in passing by, and we passed Puffin Island (Ynys Senol) about 6 p.m. A little to the west (but on the coast of the Island Anglesea) of Puffin Island lies Moelnfre Bay where, the "Royal Charter" wrecked. The weather exceedingly pleasant, and all free from seasickness when passing by; but a few of the company vomited a little just before we reached Holyhead. Sister [Mary] Dyer still continuing very ill, having the quincy in her throat. Brother [p.87] [William] Moody prayed in the evening, and then exhorted the brethren and sisters to act wisely before the crew, and not give way to too much levity. I kept walking on deck until about 11 p.m.
Tuesday, 20th. Got up about 4 a.m. and had a view of the Calf of Man; but it was not near so plainly to be seen as North Wales, in consequence of our being a little more in the sea in passing it than we were while passing North Wales. A fine morning, and the wind favorable; but we had head wind from Liverpool until for some time after the tugboat left us, which was a little beyond Ambroch, and that about 8 p.m. yesterday. About 9 the Irish Coast became visible, some 15 miles off Belfast. The strong head wind rendering it impossible for us to make down for Holyhead, we made for the North Channel. The Mull of Cantire was visible to us from about l2 a.m. until about 9 p.m., as, in consequence of not having fair wind, we made but very slow progress during that time. About 11 a.m. it came to blow a regular gale. All hands on deck were at it in earnest, reefing the sails. The ship was in full trim at the time, and the gale came on far more suddenly than the officers of the vessel expected. Brothers Moody, [Robert] Gregory, Cooper, Hudson, and myself went as soon as we could dress, to assist in reefing; and they managed the business in about 3 hours time; but they had furled the greater number of the sails before 12; that is, had partly rolled them up. One sail was torn in two, and one of the two pieces was blown into the sea. The sisters kept very quiet, considering that this was the first gale for them to experience. It rained very heavily at the time. A steamer passed us in the afternoon, with which we spoke. Brother Hudson prayed in the morning, and Brother Moody in the evening.
Wednesday, 21st. Nearly all sick today and in bed. Had the last view of Ireland about 1 p.m. Rather brisk wind in the morning, which increased into a gale almost before night. The vessel also rocked considerably [p.88] during the afternoon and evening until about 11 p.m., when Brother Moody prayed, and the wind and waves became still. This occurred before he had finished praying, while before, the ship was very much tossed, and many of the sisters were considerably frightened. Five or six waves burst over the deck and many of our tins were tossed about, although they had been partly secured. Emma, and nearly all, very sick.
Thursday, 22nd. A stiff breeze all the morning which increased almost into a gale towards evening. I was principally engaged in making gruel, of which I made 5 sauce pan fulls, and which I divided among the patients. We had no regular prayers in the morning, in consequence of things being so much out of order and the company being nearly all sick; but Brother Moody prayed in the evening. The ship doing about nine knots an hour in the afternoon; but our course was more to the north than we wished, because it was not fair wind.
Friday, 23rd. Brother [Robert] Gregory prayed in the morning. Considerable rain in the morning and a very strong wind all day, blowing from the southwest and propelling us at the rate of about nine knots an hour. Several very sick, Emma being in the number. I was busy all day in making gruel, and waiting on the patients. The sea frequently washing over the bows of the vessel. I prayed in the evening.
Saturday, 24th. The wind changed rather early this morning; therefore, our course today was to the southwest, and that at about the same rate as yesterday. The vessel has tossed rather bad for the last few days, which was the means of keeping the patients a little lower than they would have been, had the weather been more calm. Showery, and the sea frequently washing over the bows of the vessel. Our rate of traveling just the same as yesterday, if not faster; as the wind was strong, especially in the afternoon. Busily engaged in making gruel and waiting on the patients; as, [p.89] also, was Brother Moody. Emma went out on deck today, for the first time since Monday; but she soon went to bed afterwards and resumed her post at the vomiting-pan. Brother Hudson prayed in the evening.
Sunday, 25th. The ship tossed considerably last night; yet, she went on at a rapid rate. About 6 a.m. she changed her course. The wind then not blowing very hard. We held a meeting in the afternoon, which was commenced through singing and praying, I being the mouthpiece. Brother Moody spoke relative to our duties, and then Brother Hudson and I administered the sacrament. The meeting was then opened for the Saints to bear their testimony, which opportunity was availed by the majority of them in a very free manner; and all of us felt exceedingly well in it. We also spent about two hours of our time in the evening in singing, being the first time for us to all join together in that delightful task since the day we sailed. Previous to our meeting, I managed to get the boat-swain to take the loan of a book of me, which was the compilation entitled "Orson Pratt's Works," &c. Rainy for the most part of the day; but the ship not tossing much, except in the night; yet, she rocked all day more than many of the sisters wished. Brother Trenchard prayed in the morning, and Brother H. [Henry] Henriod in the evening.
Monday, 26th. All were summoned on deck this morning before breakfast, except Sister [Ann] Parry, whom was made exempt from that duty because she had a baby. No more than the half of us had been out before since the 19th. The wind blowing from the west until about 9 p.m., when it changed its course, and we were driven to the south southwest at the rate of about 10 knots an hour. It cleared up then, or it had been raining for the most part of the day. Enjoyed ourselves exceedingly well in the afternoon singing and conversing. Emma rather ill in the evening; but she became alright almost after we administered to her. Brother Cooper prayed in the morning and Brother Moody in the evening. [p.90]
Tuesday, 27th. Tolerable fine day, but our vessel moving to the north northwest. Commenced a conversation with one of the sailors concerning Utah, but the first mate, a surly and self-conceited person, would not permit me to carry it to any extent, though the man had nothing to do at the time. Emma, and nearly all of the company, able to move about. Had our rations given us in the afternoon. Spent a very agreeable day in conversing, singing, &c. I prayed in the morning, and Brother Hudson in the evening.
Wednesday, 28th. Our course was to the north northwest until about 8 p.m., when the wind changed its quarters to the northeast. Not very well in the afternoon, during which considerable rain fell. A swallow flew over the vessel about 6 p.m., and was very near being caught by me; for it came within a few inches of my hand. Spent a considerable portion of the evening in singing, &c, in Box Street. Brother H. [Henry] Henriod prayed in the morning and Brother R. [Robert] Gregory in the evening. Immediately after we had our evening prayers, Brother [William] Moody spoke to us pertaining to our duties; and moved that Brother Robert Gregory be appointed teacher over Commercial Street, and Brother John Hudson over Spinster-street. Said motion was carried unanimously. Brother Hudson then spoke on the necessity of our conducting ourselves properly on board, and the young sisters keeping aloof from the sailors. Brother Gregory followed, expressing his approval of our conduct hitherto, and a hope that it would continue the same.
Thursday, 29th. Emma rather unwell and vomiting, in consequence of the vessel being more tossed than she has been since Saturday. Rather wet in the afternoon and evening, and the wind blowing rather strong. The wind continuing in the same quarter, and driving us on at a rapid rate; but we are told that we are but hardly 1,000 miles from Liverpool yet, in consequence of so much "tacking." Brother Trenchard prayed in the morning; Brother Cooper in the evening. [p.91]
May 30th, Friday. The wind changed about 5 a.m. into about the south southeast, and continued to blow from that quarter until about 12 a.m. when it changed to the north almost. The vessel rocked considerable in the night, and several were sick this morning, Emma included. A little rainy, and rather foggy in the afternoon and evening, insomuch that they had to ring a bell about every five minutes. Brother Moody prayed in the morning and Brother Hudson in the evening. After our evening prayers, Brothers Moody, Hudson, Trenchard, Henriod and Gregory made a few remarks each, the principal tenor of which was to exhort the sisters to mingle but as little as possible with the sailors.
Saturday, May 31st. The wind had changed by this morning into the southeast; but it shifted again about 12 a.m. into the northeast, and drove us on at a rapid rate. A clear day, but a little stormy and showery. Three vessels in sight in the afternoon, being the first vessels for us to see since Thursday. A mail steamer passed us then, with which we spoke. Another vessel was in view same day. We had seen vessels daily from the time we left Liverpool until Sunday; then we did not see any one until Tuesday. We spoke to one of the vessels we saw today. I prayed in the morning, and Brother Gregory in the evening. After our evening prayers, Brother Moody, in consequence of the sisters making themselves too free with the sailors, said that the doors would be, in the future, closed at 9 p.m., which was done this evening. [p.92]
Sunday, 1st. Some sleet fell during the night. Rather windy today but only about one shower of rain fell during the day. The weather hitherto has been very cold, considering the season of the year, and wet for the most part. Emma sick in bed, and did not get up until dinner-time. We held a meeting at 2 p.m. which was commenced through prayer by Brother Trenchard. Then Brother Moody said that he was much chagrined at seeing such an unpleasant contrast between this meeting and that of last Sunday, which was pleasant, and in which good feelings prevailed; but some coldness had taken possession of many by this time. The sisters had disregarded the instructions given, and had even insulted the teachers that were sent to them. Brother Hudson followed in the same strain, and he, moreover, prophesied that evil would befall those that would be headstrong and that would not walk according to the counsels of the priesthood. Previous to Brother Hudson's speaking, Brother R. Trenchard and G. Cooper administered the sacrament; and Brother Trenchard previous to that spoke in about the same strain as the other brethren. Brother Cooper bore his testimony, then, after Brother Hudson spoke, I, and Brothers Gregory and Henriod spoke almost on the same subject. We had three rather wild sisters, who, despite our efforts, persisted in making too free with the sailors, and they had been, hitherto, a source of trouble unto us. Brother Cooper prayed in the morning, and Brother Moody in the evening.
Monday, 2nd. A vessel in sight today again. We changed our course this morning for the south southwest. About 8 p.m.,the wind shifted, when we had fair wind. It rained some in the afternoon and evening, and the vessel rocked more today than she did before. We were rocked pretty well last night too. Emma sick in bed. I prayed in the morning and Brother Hudson prayed in the evening. The care of the unruly sisters was brought forward this evening again, after prayer. I was called to state what the chief-mate told me concerning them--that he wish it would come on a heavy gale in [p.93] order for some of our unruly sisters to keep away from the crew. Brother Hudson related what he told him, which was for the sisters to keep away from the crew, as he was certain that they had nothing but evil intentions towards the girls. He, moreover, stated that, if they would persist in their conduct, he would inform the captain of it, who would soon attend to their case. Brother Moody said that he hoped that the sisters would reform, and that no more disgrace would be brought on us.
Tuesday, 3rd. Rather rainy in the morning, and windy in the afternoon and evening. The vessel also rocked more in the afternoon than she had done, even yesterday. Our rations were given us this afternoon, being the fourth time for us to receive the same since we came on board. All of us very short of flour, potatoes, butter, bacon, &c. Towards 2 o'clock the wind became in our favor, and we were driven along at a fine rate. Brother Gregory prayed in the morning and Brother Cooper prayed in the evening. The most of the evening was spent by us in singing. Three vessels in sight.
Wednesday, 4th. A very still morning and the sea perfectly smooth. The weather also more temperate today than we had it since we embarked; but it cooled considerably about 3 p.m., when the wind increased. We spent most of the morning in washing our "house", and cleaning under the boxes. We had, hitherto, washed it about twice a week, but this was the first time for us to wash under the boxes. The majority of us were out for some hours, enjoying a fresh breeze. Brother H. [Henry] Henriod spared me 4 pounds of flour today, he having more than I had. The rain descended in rather a copious manner before 4 p.m. and it continued so until late in the night. Brother Trenchard prayed in the morning and Brother Moody in the evening. Two vessels in sight. [p.94]
Thursday, 5th. This was rather a remarkable day, in the recollections of it will, undoubtedly, be the theme of many a happy conversation to all of us. A little before 12 last night, we were nearly all aroused by the shouts of the sailors who were all busily engaged in reefing the sails and placing things in order. A storm had come on rather unexpectedly, and it began to toss us about more than we wished. I remained in bed until a little after 2 a.m. when daylight had made its appearance. Immediately, almost, after, a grand scene was produced, which gave us no little degree of pleasure. Those boxes and casks that had not been sufficiently secured, gave way and commenced knocking against each other with a considerable degree of fury. These were soon joined by tins, bags, hampers, &c., so that our little place was all in an uproar, and some of our sisters were in a rather frightened condition. To add to these, a large wave burst over our heads and a great part of it came into our apartment. Simultaneously with this, the front plank of berth 14 gave way, so that Sister Eliza Reeve, Jersey, was thrust out of her berth, bed and all, until she was under the hatchway when the said wave burst over. The sea had become very rough by this time, and it continued so until late in the afternoon. The boxes, &c., kept playing their game until about 2 p.m. when we commenced to re-secure them and put the place in order, which we did. The waves continued to burst over the deck for the most part of the day, and the sides of the vessel frequently touched the water. Several acknowledged that it was a considerable storm but it could not be classified among the most remarkable ones. I was not at all terrified; but the rocking of the vessel and the rattling of the boxes gave me a very great degree of amusement, and I shall certainly rank this day among the most pleasant days of my life. In order to encourage the terrified sisters, I and Brothers Moody, Gregory, &c., turned all of our seemingly troubles into laughter, and we did enjoy ourselves [p.95] to our hearts content. Some of the most traditionated among us were not pleased with our conduct; but we felt that we did our duty, and that we could do nothing better on the occasion. Owing to the roughness of the weather, we had no prayers in the morning. I prayed in the evening. Six of the sails were rent in two by the wind.
Friday, 6th. The weather more calm today and dry for the most part of it; still, it blew a stiff breeze and we were propelled at a pretty good rate. . . .Brother Henriod prayed in the morning, and Brother Hudson prayed in the evening. A shower of hailstones for today. [p.96]
Saturday, 7th . The vessel rocked considerable last night, almost as much as she did on Thursday morning; yet it was not very rough. This day was a fine one, and the wind had been fair unto us since Thursday morning, or, rather, since Wednesday evening. Brother Moody had an interview with the captain today, who gave him a number of tracts and testaments issued by the New York, or the American, Tract Society, to be divided amongst the company. Each person had a chance of getting several tracts, and a testament was presented to each family almost--myself being among them. Emma getting a little better, and managing to stay a little out of bed. She has been sick almost all the voyage until now, and is very weak. Brother Trenchard prayed in the morning and Brother Gregory prayed in the evening. I had about half an hour's interview with the captain in the evening. Among the tracts he gave today were seven or eight Welsh ones. A vessel in sight.
Whit-Sunday, the 8th. A small vessel passed close to us this morning, from Quebec. Very rainy in the morning, and the wind blowing a regular gale all day, quite as much as on Thursday. The waves were washing over more frequent than on that day so that our place was kept more fully supplied with water than we wished. Nearly all in bed, and Emma very sick. Owing to the state of the weather, we had no meeting in the afternoon. Brother [William] Moody prayed in the morning, and I prayed in the evening.
Whit-Monday, 9th. A three-masted British vessel passed us this morning. She was so close to us that we could plainly see the men on her deck. The captain of our vessel made a signal for her to stop, as he was anxious to exchange some European newspapers for American ones, but no notice was taken of his signal. A fine day. I brought my bedclothes out to air them. Emma still unwell, but she got up in the afternoon. Nearly all the others in good health. Brother Hudson prayed in the morning and Brother Cooper in the evening. [p.97]
Tuesday, 10th. It rained very heavy in the night and blew very hard. Had our rations given us today, being the 5th time. Tolerable fine weather, but little foggy in the evening. The vessel moving at a rapid rate, and almost in the right direction. Brother Gregory prayed in the morning and Brother Henriod in the evening.
Wednesday, 11th. Foggy in the morning, when we were going almost north. It was foggy also in the night, so that a bell had to be rung, that a collision might be prevented: two horns were blown this morning, to answer the same purpose. The ship's course was altered about 10 a.m., and directed southwards. Had an interview with the captain, and the loan of the 1st volume of "Hinton's History of the United States". Brother Trenchard prayed in the morning and Brother Moody in the evening.
Thursday, 12th. Foggy all day, so that bells had to be rung, and horns blown; it rained too, for a considerable portion of the day. I am told that we are on the southern edge of the banks of Newfoundland. Mr. William Morris, the 2nd mate, said he saw two whales this evening. We held a meeting at 7 p.m., which was commenced through prayer by Brother Hudson and concluded through prayer by Brother Gregory. Lent the captain the book entitled "Orson Pratt's Works". I prayed in the morning. We had no regular prayers in the evening, as Brother Gregory prayed at the close of our evening meeting.
Friday, 13th. Foggy all night, and for some time this morning; but from 10 a.m. on the weather proved clear, yet cold. The officers of the vessels very cruel to the men, beating them in a most shameful manner. I never saw so much cruelty practiced in all my life as I have seen since I have been on board. The captain permitted us to have about two meals each of potatoes. Brother Henriod prayed in the morning, and Brother Cooper in the [p.98] evening.
Saturday, 14th. A foggy and unpleasant day, and the vessel moving but little. A pig was killed on board. Brother Trenchard prayed in the morning, and Brother Gregory in the evening.
Sunday, 15th. A very pleasant day, but no breeze scarcely. A small schooner passed us about 10 a.m. We held a meeting at 2 p.m. into which I gave an invitation, through the appointment of Brother Moody, to the chief mate. I was depute to tell him that the same privilege was extended to the captain; but neither of them availed himself of it. We gave an invitation before to the crew; but, either through not being able or not having a disposition to do so, they did not attend. Our meeting of today was commenced through prayer by me. After singing, the sacrament was administered by me and Brother Hudson; then, the meeting was opened for the Saints to testify, of which privilege the majority of the adults availed themselves. Afterwards, Brother Moody spoke a while, and then the meeting was closed. A vessel was in sight in the afternoon. Prayers: Brother Hudson in the evening and Brother .....
Monday, 16th. A very wet, and rather stormy day; but the wind favorable to us, so that we were propelled at the rate of about 10 miles per hour. It commenced raining about 9 p.m. yesterday; but it continued calm until about 6 this morning. Two vessels were left behind us in the afternoon. We amused ourselves in the evening by dancing, if I may justly call such exercise as the moving of legs in an inartificial manner, dancing. Be that as it may, we were well amused by the exercise; I joined in the crowd, but I was about the worse "dancer" of the whole. Brother William Walters, of St. Hiliers, Jersey, acted as violinist; and did his part very well, considering that he was but an amateur. Emma sick in bed all day; all the rest pretty well. Brother Gregory prayed in the morning, and Brother [p. 99] Henriod in the evening.
Tuesday, 17th. Our provisions were served out to us today being the 6th time for us. A fine day, and a good breeze; but not exactly favorable unto us. The captain said that we were within 600 miles of New York about mid-day or exactly 15 degrees eastward of that place, the degrees being 40 miles each. Emma sick all day. We had our place well washed out this morning, which we do almost alternately. We have managed to eat all of our biscuits; but we have nearly all our stock of rice, peas, and oatmeal. The best way we make the biscuits palatable is by soaking them for a few hours in cold water and then frying them with a little bacon or bacon fat. Brother Trenchard prayed in the morning, and Brother Cooper in the evening.
Wednesday, 18th. A fine day, but contrary wind. The captain gave us permission this morning to have as much water as we would want, which was received with shouts of hurrah, as it made us to understand that we were not very far from port. He called me into the cabin in the afternoon, where I wrote him three lists of the names of the passengers for which task he gave me a bottle of ale and a tin-full of soup. The names, ages, &c. of the company are as follows:--
(Brother Moody prayed in the morning and I prayed in the evening.)
[AT THIS POINT IN THE MAUSCRIPT THERE ARE 38 PASSENGERS LISTED IN A TABLE] [p. 100]
The crew numbered 18, besides 1 boatswain, 3 mates, 1 captain, 2 stewards, 1 cook, and 2 stowaways. In addition to that, a cow and a bull, about 10 or 12 hens with a few roosters, 6 or 7 ducks, 6 pigs, 1 dog, and two cats. Rats, also, abound on board.
Thursday, 19th. Rather rainy in the morning, and considerably foggy in the afternoon, so that bells had to be rung. The captain said that we were within 400 miles of New York. We held a meeting in the evening, which was commenced through prayer by Brother Gregory, and closed by Brother Moody. Brother Hudson prayed in the morning.
Friday, 20th. Foggy last night, and today. Some porpoises were seen by some of the sisters; but, although some were seen on a previous occasion on this voyage, I have not seen any as yet, not of any kind of fish. We have been since yesterday on St. George's Banks. The weather hitherto has been very cold, considering the season of the year; and our voyage has [p. 101] been rather rough. Brother Henriod prayed in the morning and Brother Cooper in the evening.
Saturday, 21st. A fine day; but scarcely any breeze, and that from the west. . . . Commenced writing a letter to my father and mother-in-law. Brother [-] prayed in the morning and Brother Moody prayed in the evening.
Sunday, 22nd. An exceedingly fine day, but scarcely any breeze. We held a meeting in the afternoon, over which I presided, in consequence of Brother Moody's being ill. It was opened through prayer by Brother Trenchard, and closed by Brother Hudson. The Saints bore their testimony, and Brothers Cooper, Henriod and Gregory spoke. Immediately almost after the meeting, I described a small vessel to the leeward, making for us, which I and several others supposed to be a pilot; but she proved to be a New York fishing smack. The captain sent a boat to meet her, while about 2 miles off which brought back 5 fine cods. Brother Cooper had the head and tail of one of them, which he immediately cooked, and of which we had a piece to taste. Commenced writing a letter to Brother Smith, [in] Birmingham. I prayed in the morning, and Brother Gregory prayed in the evening. [p. 102]
Monday, 23rd. Another remarkable fine day, and the sea like a sheet of glass. I never saw it so smooth. I saw several fish this morning, tumbling along. Very likely they were porpoises. They were the first for me to ever see alive in the sea, notwithstanding that I have been scores of times on sea, and have lived for years near it. Washed over me today for the first time since I came on board. We caught a young shark this evening, about 6 or 7 pounds weight, and another, about the same size, followed the bait to within a yard of the surface of the water; but we failed to catch him. The captain caught two, of about the same size, one of which he gave to our company. I had the chance of seeing a great number of considerable sized fish tumbling, in the afternoon; and of seeing a lot of herrings, about 50 in number, about a yard or so from the surface of the water. Brother Henriod prayed in the morning, and Brother Hudson in the evening. Commenced writing a letter for Brother E. [Edward] Parry to his father, E. Parry, [in] Tan-y-Graig, Llandudno, Carnarvonshire.
Tuesday, 24th. New York No. 3 pilot boat came alongside of us a little past 8 this morning, and left a pilot on board our ship. The circumstance of the kind put a new life into many of us, although we were told that we were yet 180 miles from New York. A little past 9, the "Jacob A. Atamler," [POSSIBLY: Jacob A. Stamler] of New York, came along side of us, with the captain of which our captain spoke until a little after 11, bantering each other respecting their pigs, poultry, dogs, &c. The captain of the latter came very near breaking his arm, if not entirely so, just as the two vessels were parting, by falling from the railings of the poop on the main deck. The first mate of said vessel asked us if we had a doctor on board, at the same time making signs, from which we could imagine that the captain had broken his arm. Said ship left London May 12th. I saw three or four large fish about 10 a.m. right close to the ship, or within about 2 yards off; which we [p. 103] supposed were dolphins. They were of a reddish color, about a yard deep in the water, and about the size of five-score pigs. A thunderstorm came on about 7 and continued until about 9 p.m. I never saw more fierce lightning. The weather fine in the morning, but considerable rain fell a little after mid-day. Prayers: Brother [-] in the morning and Brother [-] in the evening. Commenced writing a letter for Brother Parry to his father-in-law. Had our rations given us, being the 7th time.
Wednesday, 25th. The "J.A. Stamler" [POSSIBLY: Jacob A. Atamler] not far off us today again; she continued nearly all yesterday afternoon along side of us. New York No. 14 pilot boat met us today, being about 1 p.m., when we saw quite a number of porpoises within a few yards of the vessel, tumbling right over, and following us for a little distance. In the evening, the captain requested us to sing some tunes for him on deck, and he was much pleased at our performance. Rather rainy [-] in the morning, but dry afterwards. Prayers: Brother Moody in the morning, and I in the evening.
Thursday, 26th. A fine day. Considerable number of vessels in sight. At about quarter past 2 p.m., we caught the first glimpse of the land of America, being [-]. By about five we could plainly see some buildings onshore, at which time a pilot boat brought us a copy of today's "New York Tribune", from which we learned that the "William Tapscott" which left Liverpool May [-], arrived yesterday. By dusk, we were in sight of 4 or 5 lighthouses.
Friday, 27th. The tugboat, "Henry Bardon" came along-side of us about 3 a.m., and all ran out to have a glance at an "American steamer." We then commenced packing as fast as we could, to be ready to view the sceneries along the Hudson when we would reach that stream. We were high enough in the river about a.m. to have a fine view of the land and houses [p. 104] that were each side of it; and the river was indeed exceedingly delightful. I believe that the sceneries along that river up to New York were the finest I ever saw: we were all charmed with them. The doctor passed us unhesitatingly, and we were about almost opposite "Castle Garden" casting anchor. After we remained here about [-] the government officers came on board and the tugboat came alongside of us. The government officer opened and searched every thing we had, and even found some few articles with us on which duty could be imposed; but after threatening a little, he let us go free. This operation took us considerable time, so, that when we reached Castle Garden, it was about [-] p.m. This was a very large round building, built in about the same form as a theater, similarly painted inside, and about sufficiently spacious to hold from 7,000 to 8,000, or, perhaps more. We here met with the majority of the brethren and sisters who came on board the "Tapscott", from which we learned that they had 3 deaths on board. We had only about [-] here to bring our luggage from the boat, sell what provisions, such as rice, peas, and oatmeal, we had stored on the voyage, and collected the railway fare from each of our company from New York to Florence; for we had to leave the "Garden" about [-] to proceed towards Hudson River Depot, Chamber Street, where cars were in readiness for us. The weather was extremely hot, contrasted with what heat we had experienced in Britain, and we were considerably puzzled with the currency of this country, in consequence of our being totally unacquainted with the same. We left our first depot about [-] and the other, in about the other end of the city, about [-]. Our number amounted somewhere to 900-799 [UNCLEAR, POSSBILY 700] of the "Tapscott" company, 36 of our company, and several from New York, Brother Dewi Elfred Jones and wife being among them. Two of the Antarctic company, Sisters Elizabeth Edwards and Marth E. Cooper, from Liverpool, left us at Castle Garden, with the intention of making wives for the 2nd mate and boatswain of the Antarctic. . . . .
Saturday, 28th. We traveled all night, but very slowly, as there was but one engine attached to our train. We were at Albany about 9 a.m., rather tired for not having slept but very little during the night. Our baggage had to be changed here, during which time we had a chance to purchase provisions and refresh ourselves; but the inhabitants made us pay rather extravagant prices for the same. We left again about [-], reached Utica about [-] and Syracuse at ll p.m. I had no chance to see the latter, as I had gone to "retire," but those that saw it said it looked beautiful. A rather hot day.
Sunday, 29th. We were about [-] a.m. at Rochester, a very pretty place, and we stayed here until 9 a.m. During our stay we had a view of Gennessee Falls, as we were on the bridge above them, and I had a chance to wash my head and feet. We reached the Niagara suspension bridge at 11 a.m.; on which we had a partial view of the falls, which was the only view we had. We did not leave until about [-] p.m. as we had to change our baggage here. It commenced raining a little here, and continued for some time; but it was dry when we reached Hamilton a place on the shores of Lake Ontario. Three engines were here attached to our carriages as there was uphill for some distance; but we were left to the mercy of one as soon as we reached the top. It rained for about 2 hours after we left Hamilton, and then cleared. I never saw such a number of glowworms as I did this night; I saw many hundreds of them. By 12 p.m. we were at New London, and by 6 next morning in sight of Lake St. Clair. We reached Windsor about an hour afterwards, when we had again to change our baggage from the cars into the boat. During this time, we went out to purchase provisions. I was a little astonished here at finding fresh butter at 12 cents per pound, while we had to pay 1/4 before we left Liverpool, but oranges were sold there according to the [-] of about [p. 106] 3 a penny and raisins 5 demies per pound, while oranges were here 5 cents each, and raisins 20 cents per pound. On the ferry boat I met a brother to Abraham Mason, Nant-y-glo [UNCLEAR], inquiring after his brother. He seemed very kind, as did the whole of the porters belonging to this boat, who handled our luggage more tenderly than it had been previously handled.
Monday, 30th. The luggage was shifted from the boat again to the railway vans, the place of disembarkation being Detroit. We left this place about 2 p.m., the weather being rather warm. We stopped at several places to feed the engine, and, while at a place called Chelsea, I had an interview with a man that seemed pretty favorable to us. He offered and gave all his tobacco to the brethren, wished us success, and did not leave until he crossed the fence and shook hands with us. We sang a tune at his request, and, just as we had finished, the train started, when his wife took some silver coin out of her pocket and ran towards us; but the train had by this time attained too much speed for her to overtake us. It was evidently her intention to bless us with a little money; but it was too late. She was a native of Wurtemburgh; but he was an American. He entirely discountenanced the expedition to Utah in 1857-58, and seemed to wish us fair play. The sceneries had continued pretty good all the time; but the best we saw were in the state of New York.
Tuesday, 1st. We came about 8 a.m. in the sight of Lake Michigan, and about 9 we reached Chicago. Just as we halted here, a child belonging to some of the company died.
We had some difficulty here, as well as in other places, in obtaining provisions; and the inhabitants took good care to have some profit from us. This is a very pretty place, as far as I could judge, and very clean. We [p. 107] left about 10 or 11 a.m., but our sceneries today were nothing to be equaled to those we have previously seen, as the country from Chicago to Hannibal is nearly all levelâ€”a novel sight, of course, to us, but not one abounding with pleasant views. We were between 5 and 6 p.m. at Mendotah, where we purchased eggs at 5 cents per dozen and butter at 8 cents per pound, being the cheapest we have hitherto purchased.
Wednesday, 2nd. We arrived at Quincy about [-], where we had a rather hard job, in removing our luggage to the steamer "Blackhawk" which took us to Hannibal, and on board of which we were packed more like a lot of beasts than anything else. The railroad porters and others handled our luggage shamefully in this place, and nearly all here were very gruff to us. We reached Hannibal about [-], where we found the people just the same towards us as those in Quincy, except those on board the boat, who acted as reasonable as we could expect. We left about past 3; and, while crossing Salt River, we saw a company of U.S. soldiers, guarding the bridge across that stream which had been twice burnt by the Confederates. We were at a place called Carbon about dusk, where I met a brother named Stoddart, who informed me that a brother named James Davies, was working there and that two other Welsh brethren, named Thomas and Charles Rees, had just left for the Valley.
Thursday, 3rd. We had quite a spree this morning, [p.108] while the engine was feeding, in hunting a small animal resembling a squirrel, but our efforts were in vain. I found a few wild gooseberries near the spot, and some of the brethren a few plums. While at Stewartsville, I saw a slave for the first time. There were quite a number of U.S. soldiers here, as well as every bridge on the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. The companies in each place numbered from about 50 to 100, and the majority of them were cavalry. Our company was divided into two at Hannibal (for [p.108] the first time) and some of us packed in cattle cars as though we were but beasts; and the engine that happened to drag us was so bad that we were not able to reach St. Joseph before 12, while the other portion of the company had arrived about 7 a.m.
Friday, 4th. We slept last night, nearly all of us, at a large shed in St. Joseph, pertaining to the railway. A great many of the citizens and other soldiers visited us during our stay; but they were not near so civil to us as the people we had passed previous to our entering Illinois. The inhabitants of St. Joseph are, in my opinion, a cruel people, and far from being courteous to strangers. Still, they were not without some exceptions, and the press there has, on this occasion, given us a little credit, for I find in today's edition of the "Morning Herald", published daily there, the following paragraph:
"Mormons--another crowd of Salt Lake pilgrims arrived here yesterday. They are 750 strong, principally English, and decidedly the best looking lot of immigrants we have seen yet, bound for Jerusalem. Some of the ladies are beautiful, and have good taste enough to dress without hoops. Long many they wave!"
One of the brethren fell last night while fetching water and broke one of his ribs. Brother Benhan was taken ill yesterday, but he is better now. We went on board the "Omaha" about a quarter past 6 p.m. where we were again huddled together more than was comfortable. Some of the steamer's officers were gruff to us, cursing us in the most vile manner. I quartered on the upper deck, and slept in a place where the dew of heaven could wet my body. Just as I was in the city in the afternoon, I saw three slaves thereâ€”the first for me to ever converse with. The weather dry and hot, as it had been since we landed, and the Missouri very high. [p.109]
Saturday, 5th. Another very hot day, and some of our company suffering from the effects of ice water. Sister [-], who gave birth to a child in the train on the 1st, died today.
Sunday, 6th. Several suffering today from the diarrhea, and Brother Davies whom was taken ill only last evening, died about past 2 a.m. Sister Jane Brunker, Liverpool, as well as two or three others, very ill. We buried Sister and Brother Davies about ll a.m. at the foot of a bluff on the banks of the river. We arrived at Council Bluff's Landing about 5 p.m. at Omaha Landing about half past, 10 and at Florence about 12. Here several had come to meet the immigrants; and Brother Thomas H. Harry's Swancey, had come to meet me and Brother T. W. Reese who conducted us to a house he was residing, in the city, about a mile from the landing.
Monday, 7th. We did not leave the landing place until our luggage was weighed, which was about 8 a.m. A little previous to this, Brother Joseph A. Young and C. C. Rich gave us very suitable public instructions pertaining to the occasion. I never before experienced the weather so hot, as I did between 1 & 4 p.m. today; the weather yesterday, too, was very hot. About 4 p.m. today, the wind began to blow a regular hurricane almost, and making such a shower of dust as neither I nor scarcely anyone of the emigrants had ever seen. In fact, I had never before seen one-tenth as much dust hurled before the wind; it was impossible to see more that about 10 yards in advance. Just as this, which [p.110] lasted about 8 or 10 minutes, was over, a thunderstorm came on, which proved rather severe in its consequences, for while Brother H. Whittall, Liverpool, (the manager of the Church Printing Office there) was standing by a wagon that contained his luggage, a lightning struck him dead on the spot. Another one was struck dead about the same time in the same camp, ad some others seriously injured.
Tuesday, 8th. This morning I had the first chance of seeing the aborigines of this countryâ€”the Indians. They were five in numberâ€”one man and a boy, and three squaks [POSSIBLY: Squaws]. The men, who proved to be the chief of the Omaha tribe, rode on horseback, and the females rode in a wagon drawn by two horses and driven by the boy. A large silver medal hung on his breast, on the obverse of which was a figure of General Washington, and on the reverse the figure of an American soldier and an Indian. In his hand, he had a tomahawk, which he swayed about, stating how he would deal with a Sioux, should he come across his path. He entered into several stores and purchased articles therein. They resembled us more than I had expected. Anther severe thunderstorm occurred this night, which continued nearly all night. Fortunately for us, we were in a house; for Brothers John Griffiths and Thomas Perkins, Morriston, had kindly offered room for me and Brother T. W. Rees and family ( who accompanied me from New York here) at their temporary residence. Of this privilege we availed ourselves, and had we not done so, we would have been highly uncomfortable for the last two nights, for the majority of the tents were blown down Monday night, and the water got into those that we not blown away. Brothers Griffiths and Perkins, and Herbert Jones, Carmarthen, rendered us material assistance in removing our luggage. The heat was so oppressive between 1 and 4 on Monday that I was nearly overcome by it. [p.111]
Wednesday, 9th. Completed a letter to Brother Smith, Birmingham. A nice, cool day, which I spent nearly all in the house, in unpacking our luggage, &c.
Thursday, 10. Another similar day. Wrote a letter to Brother D. John, Aberystwyth, and completed one to my father and mother-in-law.
Friday, 11th. Posted a letter to Brother Smith, Birmingham, and another to my father-in- law. I also, wrote a letter to my father and mother. A company of our emigrants started this afternoon, being the 2nd for this season.
Saturday, 12th. Wrote a letter fro Brother T. W. Rees to Brother d. D. Wiilliams, Merthyr Tydfil; and Joseph Evans, tailor, Trodysheiw. Brother Lyman (F. M. Lyman) came to us this morning and organized us as a company for a wagonâ€”Brother T. W. Rees and wife and child, myself and wife, Lucy Evans, Elizabeth Williams, Theophilus Davies, and John Daviesâ€”the latter from Bethesda. He appointed Brother Rees president. The three that were deficient to supply the number are to be nominated agin. Went in the afternoon of the 13th with Brother Griffiths through a small wood to the north of Florence, where I saw an immense quantity of nuts and damsons, and one snake, coiled on a hazel tree, about 4 feet high, being the 2nd live snake for me to see on this continent.
Sunday, 13th. I wrote the last paragraph in the wrong place through a mistake. Went about 8 a.m. to a meeting held at Brother F. M. Lyman's camp, where we had instructions from Brothers Rich, Lyman (the two Apostles) Brown, and Blackburn. While coming from the same, I saw 5 Indiansâ€”1 man, two squaks (squaws), and two children. A rather severe thunderstorm occurred about the same time; but it kept away from us. [p.112]
Monday, 14th. Posted a letter today to my foster parents, and one to my mother; also, another one for Brother Rees to Brother D. D. Williams, Merthyr Tydfil; and one for Brother Perkins to Brother Middleton, Cedar City. The first company of wagons from the Valley arrived here today. I also wrote a letter for Sister Lake, Merthyr Tydfil.
Tuesday, 15th. A fine day. Went this evening to Brother J. D. T. McAllister's camp, about 3 miles north of Florence, where I had an interview with Brother Henry Stokes.
Wednesday, 16th. Wrote letters to Brother Hopkin Jones, Morriston, and Sisters Williams, Trevor, Flintshire. Carried some wood from the riverside in the evening, as I generally do every morning and evening.
Thursday, 17th. Rather wet, and a severe thunderstorm occurred in the night.
Friday, 18th. Brother Griffiths removed today to Brother Duncan's camp. Posted the letters I wrote on the 16th.
Saturday, 19th. Brother Benjamin Lloyd and others visited me today. A fine day; but a thunderstorm occurred in the night.
Sunday, 30th. Another fine day. Brother John Rees (formerly of Blaenau Gwent, Monmouthshire, but now of Omaha) and wife, 2 daughters, and sons-in-law visited us this afternoon. I went at 4 p.m. to a meeting held in Brother Homer Dunca's Camp, which was situated about a mile to the south of the house I resided in, that being the next house to the west of Florence Hotel. The St. Joseph streamer arrived this evening, having on board a company of Swiss Saints, under the presidency of Brother George L. Ballif, which (being 109 in number when they embarked) left Havre-de-Grace, on board the "Windermere," on the 15th of May. A few French [p.113] families from Paris were among them; and about 30 or so of the Williamsburgh Saints.
Monday, 21st. Some wagons arrived today again from the Valley, and in the company was Brother William Owen, formerly of Swansea. Brother William Willis also arrived, this afternoon, having performed the last 70 miles on foot in order to reach before some of his acquaintances would leave. He spent much of his time in Glamorganshire, and it was at Cardiff that he first received the priesthood, and from there he went on his mission to India. He is now on a mission to Britain. Brother H. Duncan's camp started today. In it were the following Welsh Saints:â€”John Griffiths, es-president of the Glamorgan Conference (into whose house I was kindly received here); and Hugh Evans, ex-president of Denhigshire Conference, and families; Thomas Perkins, Morriston; David Rees, Blaenau Gwent; and families; and Herbert Jones, Carmarthen, and Jenkin Williams, shoemaker, Aberdare. Also David Thomas, blacksmith, Aberdare, and family, and Theophilus Davies.
Tuesday, 22nd. Brother Thomas Williams, formerly of Sirhowy, arrived here today with one of the trains from the Valley, in order to take out his family with him. He was well and in good feelings, as he always is. He is a very faithful brother, and has done his utmost towards the upbuilding of this kingdom. Posted a letter to Brother Jason Thomas, Cae Clyd, Blaenau Festionig, Merionethshire.
Wednesday, 23rd. A fine day, as was yesterday. Engaged mostly in packing, &c. Brother B. Lloyd visited us today. Several have been buried of late here, principally from the Danish camps; but, as I have no statistics to refer to, I cannot make anything like a correct report of deaths among the emigrants. [p.114]
Thursday, 24th. Attended a meeting this evening at Brother F. M. Lyman's camp, at which Brothers C. C. Rich and A. M. Lyman spoke. A fine day.
Friday, 25th. Wrote a letter yesterday to Elleanor Rees, Mynyd Cerygynia [-], Carmartnenshire, for Brother T. W. Rees, her son. Wet in the morning, but fine in the afternoon.
Saturday, 26th. A fine day. Brother W. [William] C. Moody requested me this morning, in connection with Brother C. C. Rich, to take charge of 37 . . . (several words here are obliterated) . . company. I complied with the same, and immediately took my luggage up to the camp and had it weighed. It proved to be 285 pounds weight, including a small chest of Brother James Carter, Lehi City, weighing about 27 pounds, a small parcel to Brother Barry Wride, and Brother J. Davies, Bethesda's luggage, who goes in connection with us. I had sacrificed a fine box, weighing 39 pounds, for the same of diminishing my weight of luggage. Saw Brother William Treasure, formerly of Flower-de-Luce, Monmouthshire; and Brother David Todd, Pen-y-car, in the camp. Finished writing a letter fro Brother Robert Benham, formerly of Jersey, to his son. Brother T. W. Rees posted the letter I wrote him to his mother, and a long letter I wrote to Brother D. John, Shaldon Square, Aberystwyth.
Sunday, 28th. Attended a meeting at 9 a.m. at Brother f. Lyman's camp, at which Brothers Willis, Neslen, Atwood, and George Sims spoke. The whole, except Brother Atwood, are on a mission to England: he is on a mission to the southern part of Africa. Wrote a letter to Brother B. P. Evans, Great Salt Lake City.
Monday, 29th. A fine day, as was yesterday. Sold a second-hand English bible, two shoe brushes, ad a butter pot for 10 cents; also a good box, which costed about 18/- in wales for 20 cents. I had taken [p.115] the hinges and lock away. Purchased a washing board for 25 cents. Emma and I and Brother John Davies, Betheada, went in the evening up to Brother Mar.'s camp, which was situated about 4 miles northward of Florence. We slept at Brothers Thomas Williams' tent.
Tuesday, 30th. Our camp removed this morning about half a mile westward. Brother and Sister Rees came to see us just at the time, and Brother Roberts, son of Brother David R. Roberts, Dobygary du, Blaaenau Ffestiniog, visited us in the evening. He emigrated with his father on board the "S. Curling" in 1856, and has been living of late at some place in Cache Valley. His father died in the Valley in 1857. He was a good man, had much influence in his neighborhood, in Festiniog, and was a man of a considerable talent. He had also considerable taste and skill in composing Welsh epigrams, or "englynion," as the following that he composed respecting his voyage across the Atlantic evince. [HERE FOLLOWS A POEM WRITTEN IN WELSH] [pp.116-17].
. . . We traveled about a mile in Great Salt Lake Valley before we could descry the city. We looked to the north and to the south; but could not see anything except Great Salt lake , a slight glimpse of which we had to the north. When about a mile westward of the mouth of the canyon, the city, or a portion of the west end of it, unflooded itself to our view. It was right before us, and almost under us, about [-] miles to the west. Yet, we were not on a much higher ground than it, for we had left the mountains now and were on what is called here "the bench." Its first appearance produced no extraordinary impression upon our minds, neither did it convey unto us any idea of a beautiful place; but, when we came near it, and we were permitted to have a full view of the whole of its buildings and gardens, the effect on the mind became quite different, and we were fully convinced that, on the whole, it was a delightful city, of which I have no time to write at present, but shall, very likely, resume the task some other time. I had seen many encomiums pronounced on G.[Great] S.[Salt] L.[Lake] Valley for its beauty; but I must confess that I can not acquiesce with the authors in such statements, as I have seen many prettier valleys than it; but perhaps no one so fertile. It is true that we did not arrive here at the proper time to see it in its [p.176] beauty, when clad in the green habiliments of spring and summer; but, as its soil is more adapted to fruit and grain than to pasture, the difference could not have been as much. I have no doubt that is would bear comparison with any other valley of its size in the world, were it all settled and tilled; but, as its is, I think that the Vale of Clwyd, the Platte Valley, &c., are far prettier than it. Yet, the cultivated portion, which is only a small portion of it, looks well, and proves exceedingly fertile. . . . [p.177]
BIB: Ajax, William. Diary, pp. 86-117, 176-77. (Typescript) (CHL)