...We arrived in Liverpool in due course and commenced our experience of life away from home at Brother Cowley's Hotel, with a crowds of Saints, who like ourselves were bound to the gathering place in the West (Utah) and like ourselves without experience of what was before us.
The ship provided for us was the Ellen, and after a day or so we commenced to get on board. Our ship registered 1800 tons of burden. Our company 464 Saints. We were presided over by elders and returning missionaries, J. [James] W. Cummings, Crandel Dun [Dunn] and William Moss. Brothers Dun [Dunn] and Cummings both had presided over our conference (Sheffield). I suppose we had the room allowed us by law, 18 inches of breadth each, but we were still very crowded. Our sleeping arrangements were berths, two tiers high all around the vessel and down the center of hold. And two cabins on deck. The berths allowed for a family were allotted together as much as possible. There was about 6 feet of space in front of the berths, for passage way and storage room for provisions, boxes, etc. We were instructed to make everything fast, but as we did not understand the term in a suitable sense we could not foresee the result. In those days all did their own cooking and furnished their own utensils, so that the amount of tinware we needed was enormous, and a look at the ceiling of our vessel, when all were hung up, might cause a stranger to think that quite a proportion of the vessels cargo was tinware.
Our cooking arrangements consisted of a gallery about four feet long, and three feet wide, the top full of holes over which to place vessels to boil. A fire was along each side with bars lengthwise. Some of our tins had a flat side and hooks on them to hang on the bars, these we called "hangers on." There was an oven down the center between the two fires for baking, this completed our cooking accommodations which were meager. Especially as we were not skilled in the use of it. [p.11]
By January 5, 1851, we were all on board, our last duty onshore being to pass a medical inspection. This consisted in going to a small square window at an office nearby and there each putting out our tongue, then the inspector stamped our tickets, a stamp for each person. The evening of the day saw several couples of the Saints united in marriage. An ocean voyage seeming to them just the thing for a honeymoon. Forenoon of the 6th the vessel moved on her way. The Saints joyfully singing, "Oh! Babylon, we bid thee farewell, we are going to the mountains of Ephraim to dwell."
Sailing down the Mersey River was pleasant. Evening found us in the Irish Channel, with a strong wind blowing, the night dark. First we had a narrow escape of being run into by a passing steamer. The wind continued to increase, with is an increase in seasickness amongst the passengers, very few were exempt. Another thing our tinware, water bottles, provisions, chests, etc. broke loose from their moorings and dropped from their nails overhead, and the scene in the vessel I am unable to do justice to. The articles chasing each other from side to side of the vessel, spilling their contents as they traveled, the water bottles having the advantage in the race, owing to their being round, they would leap or roll right over the other things and beat both ways. And we were all too sick to interfere, so they went it unmolested. We could only look on out of our berths and witness the scene. We had enough to do to keep from rolling out ourselves. About midnight we experienced a violent shock, and more movement from side to side, which continued for a time and then ceased. Morning found us anchored in Cardigan Bay, North Wales. We learned that our vessel had struck, or had been struck by a schooner, which first struck and caught on our jib boom, breaking it off, then heeled around, and caught on to our main fore and main yards, breaking them both off, one in the hinges, and the other halfway between. As to the schooner from all we could learn, she was lost with all on board.
While in they bay we made a new jib out of the broken yard, and made one new yard out of a stick we had on board, and obtained another new one from the shore.
Morning found me able to get up. I commenced a round of the vessel. I first called on one who had traveled with me in the ministry, and who was also one of the couples married, the previous evening. I found them in bed and unable to get up, but able to eat. They invited me to breakfast provided, I would get it, for myself and them. This I did. I next called on another of my ministerial brethren in the cabin. He was a family man, well to do and had come on board with a large provision chest well supplied with good things, extras for the voyage. I found them trying to sort out the contents of the chest. It had contained chiefly supplies in glass jars, preserves in variety, pickles, mustard, mixed and unmixed, pepper, sweet cakes, cut and uncut, eggs, raw and cooked, etc. If a person had taken a hammer and worked on the contents for quite awhile he could not have produced a better mixture of the whole contents, glass jars included. [p.12] I almost felt thankful we had nothing to lose or break. In addition to the chest they had a large brown jar packed full of eggs in salt and hung on a nail by a string over the berth. The motion of the vessel had chafed the string in two and the eggs and salt had joined them in the berth below. Brother [-] told me his experience of the previous night, he saw his chest after it had broken loose and was racing around the cabin. He jumped out of bed in his nightclothes, got astride the chest, using his feet for braces, to try and hold it in place. He worked hard with it, until the vessel anchored and he was able to return to bed. These are samples that will answer more or less for all of our experiences of that first night. The experience was valuable. It taught us what was meant by fastening our boxes. We stayed two weeks in Cardigan Bay. Here we organized the vessel into wards for prayer, companies for cooking and cleaning. All things to have their proper times and turns. But as this will be long enough for one paper, I must defer an account of our stay in the Bay and incidents there, and how we left by faith and in the teeth of the wind, - until my next.
Signed: John Woodhouse
One of our first discoveries after our arrival in Cardigan Bay was that we had put to sea without sufficient supply of coal and water. This discovery by President Cummings who got time to inspect our supply as furnished by the vessel. He applied to the captain who did not give him any satisfaction. He then called a general meeting of all the passengers, which ended in the adoption of a resolution that we would not allow the anchor to be raised until we had received at least two tons of coal on board. The supply of fuel for cooking our food being deemed a very important item. Water also was referred to but as it cost nothing but the time of getting it, and the passengers were willing to assist in the labors, no objections were raised to that. When our resolutions were made known to the captain he yielded and a boat was sent to order the coal. I was one of the crew, also Brother and Captain Davis, who were passengers on the vessel. It was evening when we went. When we arrived on shore, myself and two others were left in charge of the boat and ordered to keep it afloat, as the tide was receding. The rest went to see about the coal. It was a cold night, and the rest did not return. So it was decided among us that I should go onshore and look after them and learn if we could not tie up the boat. It was difficult to get onshore as the water was shallow, and the waves rolling in. The two other brethren sat in the hind end of the boat and run it on shore. I was to leap and run when the wave receded. I did leap but fell on the sand, the wave catching me before I could get up and run away. I found our party comfortable in a tavern enjoying themselves. They told me they were coming as soon as they had drank up their beer. I returned to the boat, the rest soon came and we returned to the ship. The next day we were called again to go for water. We went with three boats and the two chaplains and the 2nd mate, and two three hundred gallon casks in two of the boats. We arrived and filled our casks, in returning we found the wind blowing, and the bay rough, and dangerous to us and hard to get on board. A long line was fastened to the boat, a rope ladder put down the side of the vessel, which was swinging lively, as the boat was washed by we had to catch the ladder, and jerk up our feet, one of us at a time. We all got safe on board, also our water.
Cardigan Bay is a small bay, well sheltered from the sea. We were glad to enter it. After staying there two weeks, one of them waiting for a favorable wind, we were equally glad to leave it. And as days passed away we realized that food and water were being consumed, and no progress on our journey being made. Some felt their hearts sink. At the end of two weeks we were holding an evening meeting, naturally our situation and our prospects of leaving the bay formed our chief topic. After a number spoke, Brother Dun [Dunn] arose and said, "Brothers and Sisters, we have been in this bay long enough, I move we leave this bay tomorrow!" Another Brother arose and put the motion in the usual form. Needless to add it carried unanimous. Soon after meeting adjourned. [p.14]
Next morn found myself and others early on deck, expecting and hopeful, the wind had changed, but we were disappointed, it was still blowing right into the entrance of the bay. While I yet remained on the deck, the captain came up. He paced the deck in a nervous and hurried manner, frequently pausing to scan the horizon. Then he hurriedly gave the order, "Hoist the signal for the pilot." This was done. The pilot soon came on board in his boat and asked what was wanted. The captain told him we would try to get out of the bay. The pilot said it could not be done. Brother Dun [Dunn] was standing by, he immediately answered, "It can be done." The pilot said, "We can try gentlemen, but no ship has ever left this bay with such a wind as this." In the meantime quite a number of us had been at work, trying to raise the anchor, which was fast and took much work to raise it. But we got it up and commenced to move. We sailed around the bay, acquiring speed and force, and then by a dash passed the entrance, and out into the Irish Channel. Thus in the face of the wind and the pilot's opinion we realized the results of our faith, and proved that the faith of a Latter-day Saint can accomplish even against the wind and the opinion of an experienced pilot.
After leaving the bay the winds continued adverse for three days, we tacking around the Irish Channel seeing our familiar Welsh coast.
As we got over our seasickness, good appetites was the results and we had nothing much to do but cook and eat, these became important to us - I have already mentioned the deficiency of our means for cooking, especially baking. I recollect one day, weather bright, but rough, the vessel rolling much, a Saturday I believe. Our English instincts of something better than common for Sunday dinner was strong upon us. The result was a large number of pies made, that had to take their turn at the galley. There was a long row of them, arranged along the bulwarks of the vessel, each to come in its turn. But a monstrous wave happened to come before the turn of most of them, the wave covered the deck, demoralized the pies and disappointed many a one for their Sunday extra. Quite a number of amusing incidents occurred to me. I can mention but a few of them.
I have already referred to our good appetites. These sometimes overcame good resolutions ( a case in point). A sister whose berth joined ours and who had a husband good to attend to cooking, was fortunate in getting two pies baked. As they were eating the first she put the other away, remarking, "I will present this to Brother Cummings." Brother Cummings ate in the cabin, and had his food cooked by the ship's cook. Presumably he did not need the pie. It was purely good feeling on the part of Sister [-] and a desire to give it tangible shape. She laid the pie away. After eating the first pie, she took out the other, looked at it awhile, then remarked, Brother Cummings could not eat a whole pie. She cut out one quarter, then she laid the rest away. After a while she took it out again, remarking that a three quarter pie looked odd, a half or whole looked better, so cut off the second quarter, putting the half away again. Brother Cummings did not happen to come along just then. [p.15] She took out the pie again and said it was a good feeling only that need be shown and not a matter of quantity, so she cut off the third quarter, laid the last quarter away. Finally she took out the last quarter of pie and remarked that a quarter was too little to present to anyone, so she ate it up. Brother Cummings was never made aware of this instance of good feeling towards him.
If an account of the various ways means have been raised by the poor to "gather" with could be written, it would be a wonderful work. I will mention one instance of it. A family that emigrated with us, by name, Morris, a shoemaker by trade and circumstances very poor, but in the providence of God, triplets were born to them. This was so unusual that numbers went to see them. The generous of them made presents to the family by which enough means was realized to emigrate with. The babies were fine ones and looked well when they came on board. But as the mother could not give suck sufficient for the three, and suitable food could not be secured on board, two of them died on the way, the other one was well at landing, the voyage lasting ten weeks.
After the stormy time before mentioned, the weather cleared and we had a remarkable fine passage. One consequence then, but now so changed, was the drinking water we had. On account of the length of the voyage the water went bad and as we were in a tropical climate we felt it severely. Two quarts per day for each adult was the allowance. It should have been three quarts.
After nine weeks spent on the ocean, and the date was about March 9th we were in the Gulf of Mexico. One fine morning, going on deck, a strange sight met our gaze. We were just on the line where the muddy waters of the Mississippi River joins the clear blue water of the gulf. A clear and well defined line was visible as far as the eye could reach. Apparently one hand might have been put in the clear blue of the gulf and at the same time the other hand into the very muddy waters of the river. Our anticipated prospects of fresh water were suddenly destroyed. As our stinking but clear water seemed preferable to such a muddy mess. The American coasts are low and cannot be seen far off. The mouth of the river is said to be 20 miles wide, and is mostly filled with dense growth of large bamboo canes, common to the tropics, leaving about six narrow clear channels. The one we entered (the best one) was not more than eight to ten rods wide. For many miles our course lay between the tall line of bamboo, with no signs of solid banks. The first dwellings we saw being built on piles, and only accessible with boats. The dwellers business was oyster fishing. The largest oysters I ever saw being caught there. Some of them as long as eight inches and large in proportion. Below New Orleans were large orange groves, oranges much larger than we see here. They were laying thick on the ground, also a full crop of all sizes and developments yet on the trees. Some of the Negro children threw some on board the vessel. It is about 200 miles from the bar at the mouth of the river to New Orleans. Our vessel was lashed alongside the tug, which had also two other vessels in tow. [p.16]
My fellow passenger and former missionary partner (he being by trade a practical engineer) invited me to go with him to inspect the engines on the tug. We descended the side of our vessel to the deck of the tug. Brother [-] happened to glance at the pressure gauge, immediately he turned pale and to me said, "Brother Woodhouse, we shall never see New Orleans." The boilers have 200 pounds per inch pressure on them. He said he had never sen boilers work at such pressure before. (He had been used to low pressure engines in England). I suggested to Brother B[-] that he tell the engineer. Brother [-] "Why he must know it." I said, "I'll tell him you are an engineer, and understand it." Brother [-] said "No, let us get back." I said, "I will tell him." Just then the engineer was testing the water gauges of the boilers. I ranged alongside of him, remarked to him, "Are you not running per rather high." Engineer, "Oh! no. She is only 200, we generally run her about that." I said, "Is there not danger of blowing up." He carelessly [said], "Oh, no. She did blow up last trip and these are new boilers in her, so no danger now." But the feeling much reassured we climbed back to our own vessel and in due course arrived at New Orleans.
Signed: John Woodhouse
Previous to our arrival in New Orleans, our brethren of the presidency had instructed us, as to the dangers from wharf thieves, and also the danger of getting into quarrels in a land where deadly weapons were carried. All of this was very timely to us, as New Orleans had accommodations for emigrants similar to Castle Garden, New York where emigrants could be protected from thieves. The vessel was moored to the wharf, which was also to river's bank, not even an enclosure. The sights onshore were strange to us. Every person seemed dressed in their Sunday clothes, long bosom white shirts, black pants and no coats on. Quite a contrast to many of our passengers from the farming districts of England, who donned their best knee breeches, tight leggings, laced up heavy nailed boots, smock frocks, etc., to go onshore. They were much looked at by the residents.
A row of Negro women with arms around each other, proceeded by a dealer, who was offering them for sale in the street, seemed strange to us. They seemed careless and cheerful. I had made a study of American coins during our voyage, having learned it from our American missionaries. I was appointed to go with trading parties to see that they got their right change, and were not imposed on. I was surprised at the apparent generosity of the storekeepers who offered me wine, cigars, etc., and they in turn were surprised that I did not use such things. Everyone there seemed to smoke. I will mention one instance of my experience there. [p.17]
After a pretty hard day of work, going onshore with trading parties, seeing to our landing etc. At evening mother told me we needed sugar, and requested me to go and buy 50 cents worth. I went across the levee to a large store that had sugar in barrels from floor to ceiling. There was a man in charge. He sat on a chair, his feet on the mantle piece, and smoking a cigar. I asked for sugar. Without turning to look at me he said, "How much do you want." I replied, "Half a dollars worth." He said, "Cannot sell half dollars worth." I tried another store with like results.
Just then an idea struck me that we really wanted a great deal of sugar although my present object was only a little. I tried another store found a man with a cigar, feet on mantle as before. I put the question as before. His answer, "How much do you want." I answered that it would be hard to tell, there was a ship company of us 464 persons, we are going to Utah and needed enough to do us for two years but for the present I only needed 50 cents worth.
The man jumped up as though he were shot saying, "Oh, sir I am glad you came here, because I can do better by you than any other house in town, here we have a very nice sugar at 6 1/4 cents per pound, he took a scoop (about 2 pounds) and put it in a paper sack, and handed it to me. Here is another kind at 5 3/4 cents (another scoop full as before) Here is another kind, sometimes bought by your people at 4 cents again he put another scoopful. I took it, answered a few questions about our voyage offered the 50 cents which he refused, but talked up their house. I was much surprised and concluded to try another house, which I did - results as before, including three paper sacks of sugar. I tried a third house with like results, each time offering the 50 cents each time refused. But the last added that if our company would buy their sugar of him we should have it cheaper than we could get it elsewhere and in addition I should receive a nice present in money. By this time I was pretty well loaded with sugar and returned to the vessel to tell my fellow passengers.
Next morning a fine steamboat named the "Alex Scott," came alongside and we were soon transferred on board her for our journey up the river. The boat was a noble boat of 1400 tons burden and furnished us plenty of room and board. The weather was very pleasant. The journey up the majestic river seemed so strange to us. The primeval forests still occupying so large a proportion of the distance. In fact the clearings along the river's bank seemed a mere fraction. After a very pleasant journey of about seven days, we arrived at St. Louis. Here many of who had been associates, expected to separate. Many being able to continue their journey to Utah, others, myself included, having to remain to earn the means first, then continue when such means should be raised. A cousin who had emigrated the fall previous met us at the boat landing. Our first need was rooms to dwell in. The cousin and myself started in quest of them. Under his guidance we reached suitable portion of the town, about 10th Street. We called at a house where a number of single Sisters worked and boarded together, here to make inquiries. After telling us where they had seen notices to rent, etc., One asked my cousin why he [p.18] needed a room, they knowing him to be single. He answered, he did not need a room, but our family of nine persons just arrived and needed rooms. An elderly sister said, "Is that a brother just arrived." The answer was "Yes," "God bless you, come in," she said. We shook hands all around. She lifted the foot curtain of one of the beds and took out a black bottle, two wine glasses and a pitcher of water. She filled the pitcher with water, then filled one wine glass out of the bottle, the other out of the pitcher - nodded to my cousin who turned one off, then the other making no difference. All the time all the sisters were talking fast as possible, making inquiries as to who had come, etc. After we had emptied both glasses she filled as before and nodded to me. Here I will add that I never before tasted whiskey. When she nodded, I went up, took up the glass to drink, got one mouthful, which took my breath, strangled me and I went into all the usual gestures of a very extreme case of strangling. As soon as I was able, I sat down that glass and took the other. My extreme condition stopped all the talk and as soon as I was sufficiently recovered we left. I with a firm resolve never again to try whiskey.
In St. Louis I resumed my trade as a tailor, after sometime getting work from a store. I got a job as clerk, cutter out and general hand in a store owned by a John Bellward, at corner of Commercial and Green Street. We kept common goods ready made but the better grades we made to order, about four hands were employed in the store. Common wear such as shirts and pants were given out to be made mostly to women. A number of our customers were Irish, who always wanted a reduction in price, and some amusing instances occurred. I will narrate a couple. One day one came along asking the price of shirts. I answered 95 cents. He explained, "Twenty five cents, I will give you 20 cents for one." We had paid 25 cents each for having them made. Another came along and asked, "What is the price of these shirts." I answered 95 cents. He answered, "Too dear." I said, "You can have it for 90 cents, take it or leave it. "He said, "I will tell you what I will do, and you may take it or leave it, I'll give you a 5 franc piece for one." (A 5 franc piece is 95 cents) I said, "You are a hard case. Take it along." He did so. The boss and strangers were sitting on the counters, they burst out laughing. Soon the man came back, and remarked, "Young man, did you make a mistake, about that shirt." I answered, "No, did you." He said, "One of us did, you offered it for 90 cents." "Yes, and you offered a 5 franc piece, I accepted. He said, "Ah, well good day I will know next time."
My boss was a reformed rowdy and had not much faith in St. Louis law or justice. One day a neighbor across the way saw a man take a pair of pants from our door. He came across and told us, describing the man who took them. The boss went out and soon located the man and recognized the pants. (The man had them on). The boss struck the man, knocked him down and drew the pants from off him, in the street, then gave the man a kick or two and came home, bringing the pants. In St. Louis national spirit between Americans and English runs pretty high, and encounters sometimes occurred in the taverns. One time an American sang a song, common at that time, (The Chesapeake and Shannon) an account of a [p.19] pitched battle between the two ships (The Americans won). My boss replied with another song, also common at that time. (The Constitution and Guera). The English won. One of the company threatened him with a pistol. My boss grabbed a chair, another English man joined him and thrashing all around soon cleared the rooms.
. . . During our stay in St. Louis my brother Charles had a severe sickness. His living through it was a marvel. We lost our youngest brother, Norman, and my father was accidentally drowned over in Illinois where he was at work. I also had an attack of bilious fever. A doctor gave me a prescription, the druggist gave me three pills, which were chiefly calomel. These acted on my hair and teeth, causing the loosening of my teeth and loss of part of my hair. But as the summer passed our healths improved and we were able to save up a little means towards resuming our journey to Utah.
Our two sisters, Amelia and Annie and mother, had pretty good health. Annie and Amelia had good places to live out as servants, our other sister remained at home being too young for service. On the arrival of spring we commenced to arrange for our journey to Utah. At that time A. D. 1853, there were over 1,000 Mormons in St. Louis and a concerted move was made to move all possible to Utah. Partnerships in teams and passengers were considered. We went into partnership with Brother John Marchant and family. Also we took for passengers Brother James Clark and family. (Father of President Clark of American Fork). We first arranged for a wagon, having to order it made. We paid $5.00 down on it to insure our taking it and to reserve it for us. We next bought a yoke of cattle and [p.20] a large load of corn, and a small stack of hay, and afterwards another yoke of cattle. About March a St. Louis company was made up. A steamboat was chartered to take the company up the Mississippi River to [Keokuk], on the Iowa side of the river, and on the old Nauvoo route, that was taken at the time the Saints were expelled from Nauvoo. Brother Charles went along with the oxen and wagon, leaving me yet in St. Louis, having to yet earn the means for the rest of our supplies for the journey to Utah.
Sickness and deaths were very frequent. So much so that in many cases regular funerals could not be had. On the death of our little brother we had to give notice to the city office. A conveyance came along with a load of coffins (about a dozen), they went from house to house getting a corpse in each one, and when loaded went to the cemetery and there put them in graves. My brother Charles and myself followed along and saw our brother placed in his grave, we saw none else following.
One of our shipmates, a Brother Jaques, called on us one day, apparently in good health, we had a pleasant visit. He told us how he had done, already saved means sufficient to send for his wife, whom he had left in England. He left our house and went into a near neighbors, a mutual acquaintance. They came for me in about one hour after, he was taken with it, so sudden did such things happen then. On account of so much sickness the route via New Orleans and St. Louis had to be abandoned and our emigrants go via New York, Boston, etc. This was predicted as you will see in Doctrine and Covenants, Section 61, paragraph 3-4-5-14-19.
We had made us each family a tent to sleep in, in crossing the plains also some oilskin coats for waterproofs. We made the coats of factory and then soaked them in boiled linseed oil, which made them good waterproofs. A company of about 50 wagons started at this time, myself and family, save brother Charles who went with the wagons and teams, and most of the families remained in St. Louis for about four weeks longer. It was estimated it would take the teams about that time to cross Iowa. Then another boat called the "Elvira" was chartered to take the emigrants and supplies up the Missouri River to Council Bluffs. On leaving St. Louis I did not expect to work as a tailor anymore, as I expected to be a farmer on our arrival in Utah. But we had not been long on board the boat when one of the officers seeing me said, "Oh, Woodhouse, I am glad you are here, I had not time to get my clothes fixed while at St. Louis, you can fix them as we go up the river." Another also proposed the same thing. We were eight days on the Missouri River, then landed at Council Bluffs. We arrived there before our teams. The gold diggers emigration to California was in full swing. I worked one-half day on the Missouri River ferrying them over. We made eight trips over and back, for which I received one dollar. It was hard work, having to tow the boat upstream a piece, and then row across, often landing below the usual place, when we had to tow the boat by hand to the landing. Next day I got to make a tent for some gold diggers - which was easier work and better pay. I also got to make some wagon covers for people in Council Bluffs, who expected [p.21] to cross the plains that season. Our teams arriving we found we had a surplus of flour, so we sold 200 lbs, at $10 per hundred, which made us comfortable for supplies to cross the plains also enable us to buy a cow, as also our partner had bought one, which both aided our teams and furnished us milk on our journey. . . . [p.22]
. . . It took us over three months to cross the plains at that time, as we started early in June and arrived in Salt Lake City early in September, not having averaged over ten miles per day, including all our rest days. We arrived in Salt Lake City in good health and condition, although the cholera was bad on the plains that season, and we passed many new graves of the California emigrates every day, yet our births and deaths on the way were about equal. I think about three of each, and no deaths from cholera.
On our arrival in Salt Lake city and as we were passing down Emigration Street, a kind sister ran out and gave me half a musk melon, that being the first fruit of Utah I had tasted and found it very good.
After our arrival in Salt Lake city we and our partner divided the team, each taking a yoke of oxen. The cows we had each owned from the beginning. As we could not divide the wagon, we sold it to a friend of our partner, he paying us in flour which supplied us thru the coming winter.
Salt Lake City was just commenced. The people having moved out of the old fort on to the city lots. . . . [p.25]
BIB: John Woodhouse; His Pioneer Journal, 1830-1916. Ed. By James Mercer Kirkham (Salt Lake
City: Elbert C. Kirkham Co., 1952) pp 11-12,14-22, 25. (CHL)