Sunday, February 25/55. President F. [Franklin] D. Richards and Elder Little went with me today to the ship though it rained all the way. We found the Saints rejoicing on board with the prospects of soon going to sea. President [Franklin D.] Richards had appointed me to preside and Elders Alred [Isaac Allred] and [James] Pace to be my counselors and today he brought our names before the Saints for their approval. We were cheerfully and heartily sustained after which the elders laid their hands on my head and set me apart to fill my present appointment, Elder [Franklin D.] Richards being mouth. The blessing which he pronounced on my head was all that heart could wish for such an undertaking. It was since spoken of in the meetings with the Saints with great satisfaction and [p.33] it fills them with confidence to think of the promises made to me. This also gives me much joy while it also gives me all the influence over them that I want. I regret much that I have it not on paper as well as on my head. After he gave the Saints much good counsel and instruction, he & Elder Little returned to the city giving us their parting farewell. I remained on board ship.
Nothing occurred on Monday worthy of note except that we waited all day for the captain without his appearing and also the unexpected arrival of two boat loads of freight which we took onboard. This finished our cargo.
Tuesday, February 27/55. This morning the captain [p.34] [AT TOP OF PAGE IS WRITTEN: with two government officers - a physician and clearing officers HAS BEEN CROS
SED OUT] came aboard. The passengers passed their inspection on the Saturday before so that we had now nothing to do but to put to sea. In addition to the organization already made by the appointment of myself and counselors, I had all the able-bodied men on board numbered and then made seven divisions of them answering to the seven days in the week, and then laid all the duties of the day, such as getting up early in the morning, and cleansing the ship, being the officers or rather workmen of the day and guard at night on the first division, and for the second day on second division, and so on consecutively through the week. [p.35] I made the passenger steward captain of all these divisions as he is the man to do all these things or see that they are done. I next divided the ship into four wards for religious purposes and I appointed a president over each ward. These four presidents are Andrew Ferguson in the 2nd cabin, William Smith in the after part of the ship between decks, Elder [Henry] Stocks in midship between decks and, Elder [J. B.] Price forward between decks over the young men. Having found it agreeable to the Saints I instructed the presidents to hold some sort of meeting in their respective wards each night. I find that the day is sufficiently long to weary the Saints with its monotony to have [p.36] it broken by a few songs of Zion and a few addresses from those who have anything to say. These meetings, I find, have quite a reviving tendency, especially when the Saints are well enough to attend them.
Saturday, Mar 10/55. It will be seen that some days have elapsed since I dated my journal. This is in fact the first day since our departure from the River Mercy that I felt able to write it up. My last remarks above show that we had had some experiences on sea already so I thought I would give the date of my writing and note whatever I could recollect as of importance up to this time.
We left the river with fair prospects, the wind being in our favor, though not strong. [p.37] As is usual the passengers soon began to feel the effects of an uncertain foundation. The second day we were out one could see scores of chop fallen faces which until then had been all life and glee and full of hope. But notwithstanding the doleful countenances all around, a satisfied smile could be provoked on almost all by asking them what they were after or if the Siddons should turn about again and set them down in Liverpool. Even the aged are willing to suffer all for the gospel's sake and to press ahead fearless of consequences.
We encountered a heavy wind on Friday after starting from the south which the captain thought to take advantage of and steered northward to double the north of Ireland and was hard on the coast between [p.38] Dublin and Belfast when the wind shifted from the north a strong gale as he had to tack ship again and make for the Irish Channel again. We did not have the roughest of weather but enough to keep us from sleeping much. We rocked about in the Channel advancing slowly, so that we did not get out into the open sea away from Cape Clear until full seven days.
On the following day, which was the Tuesday last, we had quite a rough sea all the day. We made no progress had we pressed sail we should have run under in the place of over the sea. Although the prince of the power of the air seemed to sport some of his pranks to frighten the Saints, it proved a complete failure for he could not get it into the heart of any that they were bound for any other port than Philadelphia, much less that they were destined to cross the River Styx. [p.39]
The captain is quite a gentleman and does all he can to comfort the sick and also the invalids. He suffers them to come on deck to take the air and loll about at ease, even which in the way of the sailors if he did not indulge it. The first mate would curse them rather and make them get out of the way and perhaps drive them below. We were much amused the other day, it being a fair afternoon. The captain had a place cleared on deck and had some of the invalids brought out to sun themselves, which others that were more able he had to jump the rope. In fact, he loves to sport with children, and he actually took one end of a rope and helped to swing it for an hour while the children and even the lasses jumped it like good ones. He has repeated this exercise several times [p.40] since to the no small annoyance of the mates but he has ingratiated himself very favorably with all on board. On one occasion he took a picture of brandy and ginger preparation below deck among the sick and blessed them with it.
Brother [William] Kent has had his health all the time, so have Sisters Jane and Helena Robinsons, especially the former who has been truly a kind angel of mercy to the afflicted. The younger one has also been very kind and attentive. They both blessed me with their kind attentions while I was ill. I appointed Brother [William] Kent as a health officer throughout the ship. He understands the importance of exercise and cleanliness in times of such debility, and acted very efficiently to promote such a state of things, but is sometimes rather rigorous to suit the inclinations of such as feel to indulge themselves. [p.41] He thinks that it his is own indominable spirit that has kept him from seasickness. There is much in having courage, I will admit, but am not willing to become an entire convert to his theory. Good sense ought to teach any person that the constitution and the general health and condition of the body have much to do with this matter and as the Lord is causing his people to go through a little practical Mormonism as a kind of foretaste, he has [-] Brother [William] Kent as an instrument through whom to succor them while in distress but he does not understand principles enough to realize this.
Last Sunday the Saints throughout the ship partook of the sacrament of the Lord's supper. All seems to go very well, and nothing has as yet [p.42] occurred to greatly disturb the good feelings of the Saints one with another. Our progress is rather slow, but we live in daily hopes of doing better. The sick are gradually recovering. We had two deaths aboard, the first was buried on the first day of sailing and was yet a babe, the second was born only some six hours before its death. I hope these will be the only casualties of the sort that may occur on our voyage.
Three marriages came off according to arrangement before starting between the parties as to making love and courting and ending it in marriages on ship board. I do not approve of it and I told the Saints I did not think as some appear to do that the more matches and marriages that take place on a voyage the better the business that was done. [p.43] I considered it disreputable rather than otherwise, crowded together as they necessarily were which naturally tended to create undue intimacy if not well guarded against, sometimes between parties not well adapted to promote each others happiness. This a long afterlife in the married state. I hoped, therefore, to hear of no lovemaking, matchmaking, or calls for marriage ceremonies on ship board from this time on in this ship and I counseled the unmarried to remain as they were until they had made the entire trip to Zion and they would be out from under my control and responsibility and then they might do as they and the prophet pleased. I had rather have it said that not one of the Saints got married on the whole [p.44] route to the Valley that I had charge over, than that a dozen or twenty matches had been made.
Brothers Alred [Isaac Allred] and [James] Pace have been [and] are still sick and unable to attend to anything. Brother Redafern [Joseph Redfern] is in bed also so I put the duty of paying out the provision upon Brother [William] Kent and the passenger steward. They give good satisfaction. The former keeps an account of the articles delivered.
Sunday, Mar 18/55. I attempt today to remember my journal but shall be very brief. Last Sunday, that is on the 11th, I addressed the Saints respecting their prospects and also their duties and a good spirit prevailed throughout and a firm confidence. I shall pass over the week without journalizing and only remark that nothing of particular moment happened to break the monotony that reigned through the week. We have [p.45] unsettled weather, some high seas, and constant adverse and head winds so that we make no headway of consequence, having gone only about two hundred forty miles in ten days. We toss about like a log upon the water. Sometimes one side up and sometimes another, in a kind of alternate sottery motion reminding me of the cradle upon the treetop, when the wind blows the cradle will rock. This keeps up a kind of friction among the passengers and boxes from one side of the ship to the other, which is rather new to landlovers and somewhat endangers heads, legs, and arms as the case may be. But all is born in with a very praiseworthy and commendable spirit as a striking illustration of practical Mormonism.
I had a little difficulty to settle [p.46] today between the steward and an aged brother, Father [John] Knowles of Preston. The latter, considering himself imposed upon by the former in the upsetting of his dish at the cooking galley, hit the steward with his pan which was resented by the other with a blow with a fire poker. Although no great damage was done by way of breaking skulls, still feelings were outraged between brethren and a black mark given. Although both were blamable it was evident, all things, including the age of Father [John] Knowles considered that the steward had not sufficiently restrained himself and had abused the old man and that he must make his acknowledgment to the aged brother and the Saints and humbly solicit their forgiveness. This was done on the spot, that is before the meeting closed, and all made right. But I had to inflict [p.47] some severe chastisements before this was satisfactorily accomplished. Some of my best and most spirited preaching is couched and mixed up in my severest rebukes. This is singular, but it is a fact that I ofttimes have the greatest flow and power of the spirit resting on me in such occasions.
Friday, March 23/55 I found the health of the Saints so far improved this week that I took advantage of a fair day and distributed the goods for making tents and wagon covers. The tents are now in process of being made, but the English and Scotch made an awkward job of it. They would spoil it, everyone if they were not overlooked and sometimes made to "do their first works over again."
We had a fine run yesterday morning and also this morning. [p.48] With these exceptions, we have been tossing about, creeping and dragging our slow length along. Ever since we were fairly out to sea. The captain frequently stated that he had never had such a tedious run. The barometer which should invariably denote the approaching weather, has now stood at a point denoting a storm or hurricane, for a week and yet we have had very changeable weather, sometimes fair, then squall, and several nights high winds. I suppose that we are not much over halfway yet. We have made since starting almost every point of compass but by no means what is generally considered at sea a hurricane, yet.
Sunday, 25th - Nothing of importance to note on yesterday except that our speed slackened again and we tossed as usual. [p.49] Today it is very rough and we are not making any headway. The head winds are such that we must be receding.
Saturday, Mar. 31st. It is vexatious to think that for several days past we have only been recovering the ground that we had lost in say forty eight hours during the early part of the week. We have still some sick on board and I am far from being well myself. Can't eat but little, and can't relish that a little. Brother [Isaac] Allred is about like myself, sometimes about and sometimes in bed. I am up more than he because I try to amuse myself in reading the history of Napoleon Bonaparte. I can do this in the cabin on a lounge when I am not even able to navigate on deck. Brother [James] Pace is in a feebler state than either of us. He is among the young men in the forepart of the ship [p.50] and consequently I do not see him sometimes for several days together.
Sunday, April 1, 1855. Today is a pleasant day enough but making no progress. What wind there is is against us and sending us nearly north.
I have felt for several days that the Spirit of the Lord was grieved and that his hand was against us. I had several dreams lately that indicated this to me. I had noticed several things that did not suit me and that I endeavored, but failed, to put down. Although I felt troubled myself I tried to think that the Lord was not so technical and particular perhaps as myself and perhaps cared less about it. It will be recollected that the presidency made it a point to counsel the unmarried not to indulge in making love to each other in their crowded conditions [p.51] on ship board. For that we did not approve of matchmaking nor of marriages taking place under such circumstances. . . .
The young sisters are highly respected by all on board, and I spoke of their worth and respectability, and their numerous friends in Liverpool and elsewhere, that they were esteemed wherever known. . . . The Saints almost alarmed at such plain dealing, are fully satisfied with what was done and it has restored and confirmed them in the confidence they had reposed in the presiding officers and the organization of the ship. During my [p.60] remarks I said that, "I had known by intimations while slumbering upon my pillow that there was an Aikin [Achon DISOBEYED THE LORD IN TAKING OF SPOILS AT JERICHO (SEE JOSHUA CHAPTER 7)] in the camp and that the hand of the Lord was against us," And as if to prove this and the satisfaction with which he accepted of our course in putting our feet upon rebellious and wicked spirits, our old ship began that same night to run before a brisk wind at the unusual rate of ten knots an hour, and continued this speed during all the following day which is Monday, April 2, /55.
I can not help acknowledging the hand of the Lord in the fair weather and wind today. It speaks to me plainly that the Lord has respect to our zeal and efforts of yesterday to defend the cause and principles of truth, righteousness, and obedience to the priesthood. [p.61]
Wednesday, April 4th Luck appears, has turned in our favor for we have had a fair wind up to last night. Today, however, we are running too far to the south. Still there may be a providence in it, to keep us out of the regions of the iceberg. This evening, just before sunset, a large iceberg is seen to the south of us about ten miles distant. It appears as high as the mast of a large ship would and must therefore be one hundred or one hundred fifty feet above water. The captain says they have eight feet of depth below the water to run above it. This must then be a tremendous mass to run against. It is white as the driven snow as the sun is shining full upon it. I wish to see no more of them, or if I do, I want to see them at a distance [p.62] for a ship under sail can not always steer clear of them when they come into close proximity with each other. Were I in a steamship I should be pleased to reconnoiter them closely. Last year they abandoned in this vicinity, latitude 46, longitude 47.
. . . The weather is fair and we are favored with a fine breeze and are being favored along in gallant style.
Friday, April 6, /55 - Yesterday we had a good wind and improved it as you may well suppose as we were looking for a change. [p.63] Today we have almost a perfect calm. Weather fine. Scarce a cloud to be seen. A real American atmosphere. Every soul seemed to enjoy the beauty and comfort of the day. The only thing to be regretted was that our speed was much slackened. We did not forget that it was conference day with the Saints in the Valley and in the States but we had not the convenience to celebrate it on the ship. In a proper way, and as we thought the Lord would take the will for the deed. The ship is so constructed that the roof of the 2nd cabin is the only place where the Saints could meet together and that was occupied all the day by the sailors mending the sails which had been torn during the recent storm. The sails are filling better as evening approaches and we [p.64] are beginning to make a fair speed again. The young folks are just beginning to enjoy a dance which was got up on a part of the deck as the sun was fast declining. Anything to enliven them from the monotonous gloom of a long and tedious voyage mixed up with a good deal of sickness and consequent inactivity.
. . .
Saturday, April 7th The day cloudy and cold and the sea somewhat rough, but still we are making, say, seven knots an hour. . . .
The weather cold and wet today, which makes me feel very unpleasant. I was invited to attend the meeting of the young men in their end of the ship & accepted it with pleasure and addressed them for near an hour. I endeavored to make my remarks appropriate to their wants and conditions, and what was expected of the young man in this important dispensation and how to become great in this kingdom, to which they had covenanted allegiance.
Tuesday, April 10, /55 Yesterday the weather was unpleasant, part of the time rainy. Speed tolerable. Today the weather was fine. Sea smooth, speed slow. [p.67] Today I took receipts of all the Fund passengers for the amount of their passage from Liverpool to Philadelphia. I also gathered a report of the number of births on board, and found that there was three children born, two boys and one girl, the first of which was a male, died in six hours afterwards. The names of the parents are Seth and Sarah Lougton of Preston. The second, is the son of James and Sarah Jordan and is named Heber Siddons. I gave him the latter name. The third is the daughter of Joseph and Sarah Bean of Bradford. Here seems to be a curious coincidence in the names of these three mothers, all being Sarah.
The wind is springing up and we are beginning to make better time. It is after night, and we are likely to make a good run tonight. We are running parallel with and [p.68] some distance off the coast of Nova Scotia. We hope to see Philadelphia by the last of this week.
Saturday, April 14th We are at the end of the week and got several hundred miles from Delaware Bay. Our prospects are however brightening, for on yesterday we saw several vessels and today we saw half a dozen of various [-], outward bound coasting eastward. This looks like nearing port. We had a head wind a good part of the time for several days past which makes us tack first one way and then another so as to gain something. We expect to make the Bay on Monday if we have luck, but this is rather a stranger to us. I expect that the Saints in the ship next after us, have taken a more southern route and before this have reached Philadelphia and perhaps [p.69] already left it for the west. Today it was very fair weather, but the wind was against us so that the best point that we can make for, is the eastern point of Long Island. Tomorrow we must tack further south or run into some port, if we went at our present rate. Today I am sorry to say another child, Brother and Sister Alroyds, was consigned to the deep. An old sister, seventy two years of age, is lying very low. I begin to fear a little as to her reaching port. I succeeded in procuring a little arrowroot for her tonight. If she will be able to take it there may be some chances for her yet. I am anxious to lose no adults, or children that have been healthy at starting.
Another birth today, Sister Ann, wife of Brother Samuel Church, gave birth to a fine daughter today. [p.70] The mother is likely to do well.
Tuesday, April 17th On Sunday last I addressed the Saints in two different wards and rallied their spirits for they began to be impatient for their deliverance. To have a little variety we had the Preston Choir to sing and play for us. We had two recitations by Miss Mary Ann Stevenson, one of which was that splendid production of Eliza R. Snow on the death of the prophet and patriarch. It seemed to me as well delivered as it was written. I never heard it done so well. The surprise sorrow and indignation, and deep strains of anguish and lamentation so vividly drawn by the immortal Israelitish poetry of the latter days seemed to have fully entered into the imagination and very heart of this accomplished young sister, the orator of the evening. [p.71]
Yesterday the day was beautiful and clear, but so calm that scarcely a wave moved upon the water. We, however, slid along just fast enough to steer the ship about one knot an hour. In the evening and through the night after we went a trifle faster. No land expected today.
Tuesday, April 17/55 This morning the day was clear and beautiful and so calm that a ripple hardly stirred the vast expanse. Toward noon, however, it began to do a fair business and in the afternoon a wind sprang up which brought with it rain. We now had just feasted our longing eyes with the welcome sight of land. This was the south east coast of New Jersey, near the Delaware Bay; but the wind shifted dead ahead and instead of running up to the bay, we had to tack ship and put to sea. [p.72] Just at [-] several hours before night we signaled for a pilot, but no signal has yet been seen in reply. Pilot boats must be off the lookout or have all found employ. We burn a torch every now and then as a signal, but all as yet to no purpose. It is nine o'clock at night and I shall go to bed soon. We are in hopes of reaching Philadelphia by tomorrow night. It depends on good luck. Our friends have been looking for us in port for at least three weeks so we will be sure to well received almost as though we were from the bottom of the mighty deep.
Wednesday, 18th This morning it was quite foggy and the sun could not be seen for several hours after it had risen. Consequently our signal could not be seen until about eleven o'clock when we saw in the distance [p.73] a signal of recognition from a pilot boat which was standing out to sea for us. We had been tacking all night, first to one point and then to another so as not to run upon any shoals which abound in the Delaware Bay and along the coast or mouth of the Bay. The pilot came aboard about noon and all hearts rejoiced. The captain was as much pleased as any of the passengers for he had become quite impatient and had begun to damn the wind, the weather, the fog, the ship, and the luck. We found ourselves some distance out to sea and it required some hours to reach the Bay where we had been last night. It was after dark before we turned into the Delaware. This makes fifty one days from the River Mersey to the River Delaware, an unusually long voyage. [p.74]
From the papers which the pilot brought on board we learned that Sebartipol was not yet taken. We had had many speculations on this question while on the way. I argued it was not yet taken and that it would not be taken. We also learned that Old Nick was dead, that is the death of the "Emperor of all the Russians," and that his son, the Grand Duke Alexander, succeeded him as emperor, Alexander the 2nd, second. What effect this unlooked for event will have upon Europe or the dull prospects of peace is hard to tell without hearing from the Vienna Congress of the diplomats from the different nations now at war.
I had the satisfaction this evening of witnessing in part the transit of the moon and the planet Venus. They were [p.75] about two hours high at dark and were in close proximity to each other and presented a most beautiful discourse, unusual appearance. I watched them very attentively with a powerful glass every moment as they neared each other, suspecting them as they come into range. Several clouds hid them for a time from view and then they would burst into view again and this would heighten the interest of their approach. Finally the smaller light was hid completely behind the disk of the greater. I waited anxiously for its reappearance, but unfortunately they went down behind a low bank of clouds and remained out of sight for the night.
While I am writing the anchor of the ship was let down, we remain at bay for the night. [p.76]
Thursday, 19/55 Set sail again this morning. Wind against us. Tacked every few minutes till noon and began to lose ground instead of gaining. Finally we cast anchor again and waited for a steam tug. During the afternoon one came alongside. The captain pays her $75 to take the ship to port. The night became dark with fog and the anchor was again cast, and the tug fastened alongside for the night.
Friday, 20th - The morning was beautiful and mild. The ship was soon put under motion and it was almost aggravating to see that noble ship which had so majestically defied and overcome the wild sea for fifty two hard contested days, now taken by the nose by a mean little insignificant looking thing and led whithersoever [p.77] the thing had a mind. The scenery was rich and delightful, especially after being deprived for so many days of the first speck of land. The English Saints thought it most beautiful and already began to form high notions of Brother Jonathan. The farther up the better until at length we put into port which was on the tongue of every prayer that was offered up during the voyage. How delighted all were. Soon a thundershower passed over the place, and during it, the doctor came on board and inspect the passengers. Several were sick, but he did not see them. The rest all passed well. I visited Dr. Clinton, Brother [Isaac] Allred with me, and learned something of the condition of the times in Philadelphia as also of the Saints in that branch. They are like the Saints in every place, hard up. [p.78]
Saturday, 21/55 Today the inspectors from the custom house came aboard. Everything had to pass under their notice. They were very particular in this, but very lenient on confiding in the passage of the goods. They seemed satisfied that no merchandise was passing. I had prepared their minds for the ordeal having made their acquaintance early. We had some quite agreeable, and to them interesting conversation concerning us as a people and my being a native of their state. They seemed interested in my representation. I said to them that none of the company were merchants or had anything of the kind to sell in shops, but still they were tolerably well supplied with family goods, going a long way into a new colony and that they would find [p.79] dress patterns, coat patterns, and the like right from the ships, and unmade. And if such things were dutiable they would have to overhaul everything, for most of them had something of that kind, but no merchandise and that we sought no advantage in any way of which I hoped they would soon become satisfied. They passed everything that was presented for their examination. I had several bills of books which I handed them, and the boxes sent to the carton house, to adjust the duties on them. I could pass anything to any reasonable bulk without detection as they hardly lifted a thing I had, saying "all right." They acted as though they were compelled to make a show [p.79a] of opening the chests of an honest man for stolen goods. They did not want to see anything. The day was spent in the examination and the things were [-] onto the wharf and from there to the railway office to be weighed and ticketed. The Saints remained on board to stay till Monday morning and then go right to the station. This saved some money but it is a very tedious and perplexing process as all had the bedding and traps had to be weighed on Monday morning by a little past ten o'clock.
Sunday, 22nd April I was busily engaged making up my report and had declined going to meeting because of the pressure of business when word came that Elder [John] Taylor had come and was at the meeting. Although I had had [p.79b] no breakfast, had not taken time to change my linen, or brush my coat, I went right along. Brother Taylor stopped in his remarks to greet me a hearty welcome. It was a business meeting to arrange for those who were to remain in Philadelphia. This we told them was the gospel of salvation, not of next year or in the world to come, but of today and present salvation was always the best. The Saints have agreed to take into their houses as many as they could till they could procure employment and then who came over noted that those among them who should succeed in getting work should contribute to the support of the others until they should likewise find employment. There was a good spirit manifested throughout the day, and the Saints rejoiced, [p.80] especially those who had just landed their feet on the land of promise, an event heretofore looked forward to with the greatest interest possible, save the final ending of their pilgrimage to Zion.
Elder [John] Taylor, Dr. Clinton, and myself dined together at a Brother Hammers and we mutually rejoiced in recounting our several journeyings, missions, and labors. We also counseled with each other with regard to the welfare of the Saints under our immediate charge and how to promote the interest and good of all. Those who remain as those who are to go on. We held three meetings today, in two of which Clinton and I participated, and Elder Taylor preached in the evening and gave us of one of his common sense discourses and must have enlightened all that would hear. [p.81]
Monday, Apr. 23/55 Early this morning the Saints began to arrange their bedding and such things as were still on board for the inspecting officers to pass them. The same process as on Saturday had to be gone over again, only not to quite the same extent. Until eleven o'clock all was bustle and haste until the train was filled and on the move. My hurry, however, was not yet over. I had to attend to unfinished business, some of which I had still to leave unsettled such as pertained to the ship stores and dutiable articles. I had also to settle the railroad fare for the [Perpetual Emigration] Fund passengers, so that it was thru 6 o'clock before I tasted food today. The weather being warm, my body feeble from the protracted seasickness, and the loss of my flesh and appetite, this heavy pressure of business was fast prostrating my health, [p.82] for from the first hour of our landing I had double duties to perform, without the benefit of previous experience. It was the "trial trip" and I left without a clerk even. Nobody did anything without consulting me, not even my counselors, lest it should be wrong and this was not only confined to the P. [Perpetual] E. [Emigration] Fund passengers, but extended to all the rest, those who "went on their on hook" as independents. It is laughable to think of such independence. They would be offended in a moment if they thought themselves the least slighted or neglected and several have not hesitated to express to me that they thought themselves neglected and not looked after as they thought they should be. And an old (not so very old either) widow lady whose house I sometimes visited, and where I several times lodged, all as was at that time considered by herself & family as a special favor to them [p.83] complained bitterly, saying that, "she had fed and lodged the elders in England, when she had a home, but now, when she was in a strange land without a house, a home, the elders could let her sit on the wharf all day and not welcome her into a house as she had done them; and there were those who called themselves Saints in Philadelphia who had homes, and yet she must sit all day and with her things in the sun and not looked after," etc. But she was not alone, only in her bitter complaints, and they were all provided for in an almost unparalleled short time.
Having finished my reports to Liverpool and St. Louis by 11 o'clock at night, I intended starting for Pittsburgh at that hour and procured a hat and was carried with my things to the depot when I found that I had either left or misplaced my passage [p.84] and return ticket which I had got from the director of the road, and without it I could not go without paying full fare. And considering that if I remained yet till 1 o'clock next day I could still be in Pittsburgh before the passenger train, I at once concluded to wait, got my ticket and go by that train at the time which was Tuesday, April 24th.
At 1 o'clock I started by what I call the Lightning Train. We ran something over an hour when the train ran against a large fat cow and must have thrown her off the rail. Still she was not so far removed but what she was dragged or run over, or both, by every car as she was dragged some twenty rods and was all mangled and apparently every bone in her broken. All the cars remained on track but the last one in which I was seated. This was thrown off the rails and [p.85] and [SIC] ran about forty rods tilting as though it must go over and stopped about twenty feet short of an embankment some fifteen feet high. Had the train not been stopped that moment the last car would eventually have been precipitated down the precipice and perhaps dragged all the rest after it. Thus were we providentially saved from perhaps instant death. There was much excitement among the passengers. As many as could were trying to make for the door in the greatest alarm and even after all was over and they safe, some could hardly talk. We had not time to think long but we thought fast and I noticed the difference between my own feelings and those of others. I did not feel any danger though I had the same reality before me that they had. As soon as we stopped I felt that the [p.86] Lord had delivered us. And to quiet their fears and agitation I said with a composed smile, "Gentlemen, we are all safe. It might have been much worse." I found I had perfect command of my voice and nerves and full presence of mind; not however, without a slight thrilling sensation for a moment passing over me as I stepped from the carriage and saw the precipice upon the very verge of which we had stopped. It took half an hour to get car on track again. Nothing of importance was broken and no one was hurt. We now accelerated our speed to regain lost time. In the course of an hour afterwards I felt the necessity of attending to a call of nature, as I had been laboring for several days a diarrhetic affliction and there being no accommodations on the train, I availed myself of the first stopping place for taking [p.87] replenishing wood and water and stepped aside hoping to be in time but the train steamed up, gave a loud whistle, and was off in two minutes from the time of stopping, and I was left. I found that I could not now get to Pittsburgh by next train before the Saints, and to keep them from waiting for me in uncertainty after they had expected I was ahead of them and had all arrangements made, I telegraphed to Brother [Isaac] Allred to charter any boat that he considered a good one, and in fact act in all things for the best till I should arrive. I went aboard the next slow train and went as far as Lancaster when I waited till 2 o'clock in the morning for the next quick train. This brought me into Pittsburgh by two o'clock that afternoon. Brother Allred had charted a boat and was under a written contract when I came, [p.88] so we made all haste to get all aboard that evening which we accomplished, though late, and in the morning laid in a small stock of provisions to do them to Cincinnati. He contracted for $3 each to St. Louis with 80 pounds; luggage free, extra luggage 35 cents per cwt. [hundred weight]. After giving him instructions how to proceed, and money to pay passage and expenses they set sail and I set out same night at 10 o'clock for Philadelphia expecting the "Juventa" daily when I arrived.
Friday, Apr. 27th At 2 o'clock in the afternoon my duties were so incessant and heavy upon me and the diarrhea still continuing unabated, I found myself almost quite sick and really in justice unfit for business. But the unfinished business of the last ship must be attended to, and I alone could do it, [p.89] besides, a preparation for the next must also be made or the same difficulties as to be gone over again as with the first company. I continued moving, therefore, and succeeded in getting things into a shipshape position when the "Juventa" was announced on the evening of the Saturday 28th.
Brother Clinton and I waited at the wharf till a late hour at night without her arrival. She had anchored for the night. It being too dark to run in the narrow channel, so on the morning of Sunday 29th, we had the pleasure of hailing this noble ship and the saints on board, many of whom we have seen in the old company. Elder Glover had the presidency of them. They had a very prosperous voyage, had lost none, and enjoyed good health with only one or two exceptions. [p.90] Elder Taylor had again arrived in the city and we met onboard the "Juventa". Many of the Saints went with him to the hall to meeting, as also did Dr. Clinton. While I remained with Elder Glover on ship board to instruct him and the Saints how to proceed with their landing and the arrangement of their goods and their stay in the city. The excitement of business and the necessity of dispatching it is all that kept me up and so I kept along. Brother Taylor strongly advising me not to go to St. Louis as I had thought of doing in compliance to Elder Snow's request, to operate at that end of the route. He thought my health would not at present justify, besides I could not be spared from this place, as neither he nor Dr. Clinton could attend to that part which came under my charge, they having enough to do with the rest. [p.91]
Monday Apr 30th. Today the Custom H. Officers began their duties early. Still it was late when they finished, and late when all the Saints got into quarters for some of them had to remain with their goods while on dock, and go with them as they were removed to the depot to be weighed and labeled after which they were out of their jurisdiction, and forwarded and locked in the railroad cars, by the proper officers.
Tuesday May 1st. The first thing I did today was to settle the various bills of the public houses and to lay in provision stores for the way to Pittsburgh. I detained Brother Glover to aid me but had it all to do notwithstanding as he had to see to some things which some of the careless Saints had left and would have lost. And by the [p.92] way, an old sister took a notion to see some of her friends who remained, lost herself and missed the train and so I had to take her along with me and pay $9.00 for her passage but her husband is good for it in the valley. The train started at 11 o'clock, and actually some of the Saints were so stupid as to see the train leave and because they had no regular seats provided at the moment remained standing upon the sidewalks with many such things as they carry in the land. Although they were told it seems, that in west Philadelphia a supply of carriages would be furnished them. The consequences was I had to hire two omnibuses to take them in haste after the train. One of these was for the "Independents," the other for the P. E. T. passengers. I had another sweat to pass [p.93] some goods belonging to President Young, S. M. Richards, & T. D. Ricks through the customs. I could not effect it in time to go by this train. The routine I will not attempt to describe, suffice it to say it passes through at least a dozen hands I should think, all attaching a handsome fee to the end of it besides the duties and it takes at least three days to pass, that is if you are in a great hurry & must have it. I paid upwards of four hundred and thirty dollars for three cases of these goods. So much for there being more than one government on the earth, which is an abomination.
Wednesday May 2nd. Today at 1 o'clock Elder Glover myself and the old lady spoken of left Philadelphia by the Lightening [p.94] Train for Pittsburgh. We arrived in Pittsburgh at 3 o'clock on
Thursday May 3rd. In the morning Brother Glover and the old lady went to the emigrant depot, to find the Saints some accommodation by the time they should come in, and I felt the want of rest so much that I went to bed and slept four hours which enabled me to keep up the balance of the day. I next went about getting some boat to St. Louis direct. I soon found two that held out inducements. I finally chartered the decks of both, one for the fund Saints and one for the others. I succeeded in obtaining them for $262 for each passenger with the same weight free as the railroad gave, which was nominally 80 pounds, but mostly 100 was to [p.95] the overplus as marked by the railroad agent, they changed 40 cents per cwt. For we had to pay $40 for hauling the luggage about a mile and 1/4 to the river. We got all aboard late the same evening, expecting to start at 10 o'clock on
Friday May 4th. But the river falling, the "Equinox," one of the boats, and on which the fund Saints were began to loosen her cable at daylight. I had lodged on the "Washington City", I was instantly notified of this by Brother Glover. I got on board of her as she was shoving out and expostulated with the captain, as I had not a pound of provisions laid in yet for the trip. He said he would wait an hour. I had to [p.96] do the best I could. I ran to the Cracker Manufacturies but they were not yet open. I chanced to go by a baker shop which had several hundred loaves of fresh bread. I bought 100 pounds and had to pay $11 just one dollar for being in a hurry. I did not mind that. Brother Glover succeeded in getting some cheese and a little bacon. So we got aboard what would do for the present, and two brethren were left at the distance of only 20 feet from the boat. I hadn't settled with either of the boats nor arranged with anyone on board (some few of the fund passengers were on the "Washington City") I had therefore to go on to Cincinnati, to settle with the one on the way, and [UNCLEAR] the [p.97] other at Cincinnati. I accomplished this to my satisfaction, and the day we arrived in that port the boat also left for St. Louis. This was
Sunday May 6th. I remained till the "Washington City" came in on the next day at 11 o'clock having spent the night with Elder Orson Spencer. After arranging for the passage of those I had on that boat, they also left & I remained another night with Brother Spencer. He was glad to see me and to learn my proceedings, he succeeded in organizing a pretty good branch in Cincinnati. Revived some, baptized some and [-] some from other places especially from the emigration. He is discouraged about the success of the paper he was [p.98] to publish. He contributes largely to the Mormon and Seminary, and is making himself very useful. [-] old
Tuesday May 18/55. Having finished my business in Cincinnati, I started this morning at 6 o'clock a.m. by rail for Pittsburgh. Part of the road was very rough which made it quite disagreeable & tiresome. I arrived in Pittsburgh at 9 p.m. took supper, and at 10 o'clock left for Philadelphia, expecting the arrival of the "Chimborazo" from Liverpool, daily. I had some unfinished business with the custom house yet to attend to which, with the disposition of the surplus provision store of the "Juventa", occupied my attention until the arrival of the "Chimborazo." [p.99]
Tuesday, May 22. This morning the looked for ship was safely lying at anchor in the river. Dr. Clinton & I visited her along side early, but could not be admitted aboard, as the doctor had not yet passed the passengers. I was glad to hail the brethren from Europe. Elder Stevenson, A. S. Lamoreux, Jeremy, and some others were on board, who with all the Saints were in first rate spirits & condition and added fresh proof to the first two ships which had already arrived, that the Mormon emigration, and the will for conducting it are altogether ahead of the great mass of foreign emigration which is constantly going on.
Wednesday 23. [p.100] Today the luggage of the passengers was inspected, and passed to the ticket office labeled, and passed on to the train, & there locked up for a start on the next day, in accordance to my directions. While this was going on in Philadelphia, I was giving directions to the passengers of the "Samuel Curling" in New York to proceed on the day after in the same way, & pass on to Philadelphia where I would receive them, as I had to return again to see Chimborazians off. It will be seen that I was operating in both New York & Philadelphia at the same time, & personally on alternate days. I returned to the latter city on the morning of
Thursday 24/55. [p.101] The train was already being filled with the Saints as I arrived from New York. I had been detained from evening till this morning by the failure of one of the conductors to keep his appointment at a time agreed upon, to transact some business with me. This was Brother Barlow, when too late he realized the force and importance of keeping appointments. The Saints having gone, I spent the remainder of the day in preparing for more from New York, as they were to pass through here. They arrived same night at 10 o'clock. That is one division of them, for they had been separated and thrown into the utmost disorder & confusion, both people and luggage, through the hurry [p.102] and in attention of the railroad agents to my instructions. In the place of keeping the P. E. Fund [Perpetual Emigration Fund] passengers & luggage snugly separate from those who go on their own means, he hurried everything together, after weighing it into one common pile, without making a way bill for individual or family goods. This rendered it impossible for me to settle with the people until all should be reweighed so as to know what to charge each one. I had procured them places of lodging at moderate prices, & so they had the pleasure of seating themselves once more to a supper table, a privilege they had been deprived of for some time.
Friday May 25. This morning at the usual hour I started this division westward [p.103] and betook me to settle their bills, and other matters after they were gone - looking for those who were left in New York. They did not come, however till the morning at day break of
Saturday May 26. I breakfasted these, in the hotels as they had been up all night & needed a cup of something warm. And at 11 a.m. I also started them, my last lot on the train for Pittsburgh, ahead of the first division. I found those from the ship "Amazon" still there, onboard, however, with room sufficient to ship those just coming in, also, & at the same price, $2.62 1/2. It was evident, however that they must lie over one day [p.104] to reweigh & arrange their luggage at the risk of paying one dollar ahead more per passenger besides their tavern bills, unless I could make arrangements with the agent, who accompanied me for the purpose of doing what he should have done in New York. The excess of costs, all things considered, would amount to near four hundred dollars. I represented to him that I should hold him responsible. We came to terms; he offered me the odd number of dollars on his bill - say seventy three, but finally gave me one hundred to release him from the trouble of reweighing the luggage & making a way bill, and also to exonerating the company from responsibility. We settled on this, he returned & we went on board that day. I arranged with the captain of the boat to [p.105] weigh the goods without cost which my clerk made a way bill. This transaction saved the P. E. Fund [Perpetual Emigration Fun] three or four hundred dollars, unless they had got it at the end of a law suit, which they would not have undertaken, and learned the railroad agents to be more careful in the discharge of their duty, & put $100 into my pocket for the perplexity & mortification which their neglect occasioned me. I consider this a fair & business like transaction & that I am personally entitled to its benefits because the Saints are not the tossers of one dollar, & the fund the gainer by hundreds also, in as much as they were threatened with loss & I thereby staved it off. I went with this boat load composed [p.106] of parts of two ship loads as far as whaling leaving Brother Willis to charter a boat for the last division from Philadelphia on the way. This was on
Sunday May 27th. I returned again on the next day at night and found the Saints already on board a boat ready for a start on the following day which is on Tuesday 29 for this boat Brother Willis had entered into writing to pay $3.50 per head to St. Louis. I know they would try for this or more (the water being now low) when I was negotiating with the agent, but I think if I had been there in the place of Brother Willis. I would have got it for less; but I could not be in all places at once. I went with this company also a part way to Wheeling, and then returned to Pittsburgh same day [p.107] where I remained all the next day waiting for dispatchers from Philadelphia and arranging up any business. Failing to receive what I was waiting for, among the rest was a bundle of boards. I had to return again to Philadelphia and although Mr. Funk had telegraphed to me twice that he could not find them, I had not been in his office two minutes before he laid his hands upon them. He had searched but not finding them where he expected to, he thought I had mislaid them but when I had traveled all the way from Pittsburgh for them he set about it in earnest [-] they were forthcoming. So you see that not even lightening can do or accomplish what one can do personally. (I am writing on board a trembling steam boat [p.108] that's why I make such crawfish with my pen.) This was
Thursday 3rd. I had now a very swollen face from having taken cold in my teeth by reason of so much night traveling. Having finished my business for the season in Philadelphia, I left it again by the a.m. o'clock train for St. Louis. I went by way of Cleveland, Toledo, & Chicago. In this place I had to tarry over Sunday, as the trains do not leave there that day, & it was Sunday morning that I arrived there. On
Monday June 4th 1855. This morning and also on yesterday morning the ground was white with frost, and it was extremely cold on last Saturday night. I felt it severely as I rode in the train from Toledo to Chicago, all night. [p.109] Today, the 4th I left Chicago by train & arrived at Alton & St. Louis same night.
Tuesday June 5th. Having heard that the steamboat "Amazon" had arrived with the Saints, the last lot but one, I hastened to find them. They were all in good condition. I reported myself immediately after to the office to see President E. Snow, & found he had not yet returned from the [-] river country, the camp of the Saints. Brother Spencer, who had also just come from Liverpool, had gone up the river to see him. Brother Bassett was left in the office as the as the representative of Brother Snow & Brother Brown is the official clerk, with whom I affected a full and satisfactory settlement for all monies committed to my charge in forwarding the Saints to this place. [p.110] This is more than they had been able to do with any former conductor, indeed the last year's conductor has not yet settled his account satisfactorily. I remained in St. Louis assisting the brethren & the Saints till the afternoon of
Friday the 8th June. When I set out in the steamboat "Keokuk" for the town by that name, on my way to see my two sisters, Mary Fellows & Charlotte Ferris arriving at Keokuk at night on Saturday. I had to remain all
Sunday, the 10th. I tried to amuse myself by going to the Methodist meeting in the forenoon; the preacher said he did not feel the spirit to preach, he did not know why, but he would try & say something. He was so at a loss what to say [p.111] that I really pitied him from my heart, he did not talk over twenty five minutes by the watch and sat abruptly down, evidently for want of having more to say. I went to the Presbyterians at night the speaker, or rather reader, was a clever chap, but he had his sermon with his pathetic appeals, all wrote down, so he read them, with great emphasis however, but he appeared to considerable disadvantage to an off heard speaker, in having to keep his eyes, constantly, with the exception of a hasty glance now & then, constantly on his paper. This will do for a gospel preacher of the old school. On
Monday June 11th. Took the stage for Keosaqua. I passed the door of my old acquaintance, Asael Fellows. I ran [p.112] in and made an appointment to return there on Wednesday night. So on I went, & had to walk five miles from Keosaqua to where my oldest sister lives. They were all very glad to see me, stayed all night with them and had much to say about our faith. I found them all nearly converted to the faith, and finally when I had again given them a reason for our doctrines & domestic institutions, they had not a word to say - all was silenced but appeared undecided. That is the great tran[-] after you "Convince them against their will, they are of the same opinion still." But how very foolish a man looks when he can say nothing more in objection, & yet does not give his consent to receive that which is renobjectionable. [p.113]
Tuesday June 12th. Jonathan, my nephew, & I rode over about 7 miles to see Charlotte & her husband. He had however just gone from home to remain two days. She soon began to [-] our religious views and especially our domestic practice, and [-] believed I belonged to the "Danite Barads," of which apostates & Missouri murderers said so much in their day & she believed that I was sworn to keep their secrets to help carry out their wicked & abominable designs &c. &c. &c. She would not believe a word, said it was no use to talk to her, she never could & she positively never would believe in our wicked and filthy doings. She used to think that my wife was a decent person. [p.114] I gave her some strong rising up but did not design to argue much, in truth I could get no chance. So after dinner, for I thought what she sat before us was the Lord's & not hers, or I should not have eaten a mouthful. I told her I was going to leave her to her own reflections & to her faith, having cleansed my garments from her blood, & that she would be doomed without remedy unless she repented & obeyed the gospel. That I never expected to see her again in this life. That I considered she had insulted me as far as she had language at command, and I should never visit her again while I lived, without she first repented & then sent for me. This is in short, the result of my visit to her, & I much regret that I went to see her. She is not worthy. [p.115] I had intended to tarry with her all night, but I returned in less than three hours to my other sister's. Stayed all night there, and had still further conversation with them upon the subject of the gospel. Mary & her two sons, Jonathan & Fullmer expressed themselves unreservedly as believing everything I said, and that ours was the true church, & asked Erastus what he had to say; he said he did not see how he could expose us, everything looked right enough if it was all as I said, & he did not think I intended to deceive, but he had never seen the sick healed. If he was asked if he believe that the apostles healed the sick, he would say yes, if asked whether he had seen them do it, no. & then his mouth would be stopped & he look like a fool. [p.116] The fact is he has no desire to receive it, or have it true. He is a pure gentile to my mind, & the promises of the Father's does not work in him to will and to do the will of God. They asked him whether he was willing to they should be baptized. He said the boys might do as they pleased but Polly had been baptized & he did not see the use of her being baptized again. So she & because she, so they all let me go away for this time till they had a more convenient season, & they not saved. I never was so grieved in spirit hardly in my life. And the spirit of the Lord is consequently also grieved.
Wednesday June 13. Left after dinner in a Aragon, Polly & her son Jonathan with me, to pay Asael Fellows [p.117] . . . . [PAGES 118-119 ARE MISSING]
. . . my proceedings were quite satisfactory to him. The little irregularities that sometimes occurred he could charitably overlook, as his experience daily proved to him, that unforseen events will arise over which one can have no earthly control whatsoever & that is quite a different things to set in an office, with time to think, and plan and arrange a system of action on paper, from carrying it fully into execution in all cases. He is more perplexed than one can imagine who has not had something to do in forwarding the emigration an I should not fear to compare notes with him on the criticism of our several monuments. I rendered him all the assistance I could, besides arranging for my overland journey, until [p.120]
Thursday June 21st. When I left St. Louis in the steam boat "F. H. Aubrey" for Atckinson. Nothing of importance transpired on the way so far. I am the only Mormon on the boat, and have had all who had the heart to attack me, on my back among them was Judge Benedict of Santa Fe, the presiding judge for the territory of New Mexico. I found him as vulnerable as any other person on the subject of Mormonism. And I actually taught him lessons on law, constitution, and the rights of American citizens. And his only bulwark, behind which he sculled was he ill policy for a small body of people or a new territory to expect to control the great American nation. In their [-] [p.121] constitutions. He made but one argument that I consider worthy the name, and because it was new to me, I will give it a place here and also my impromptu reply. He said "the laws of Congress must reach every body under its jurisdiction alike." Therefore, a difficulty presents itself to the minds of members of Congress, as to how such lands as was from time to time appropriated by the general government to soldiers, pensioners, and the like, should be disposed of in case a man should have more wives than one? He said the established law of the land, in case of the death of such land holder, made provision for the wife or widow, after proving herself to be [-], not wives, how then could equal justice be done the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th wife, which would be the case, if she was really & virtually a wife as much as the [p.122] first? I said the man's will would [-] & control that case, as marriage or his will either would make all his wives heirs at large. He replied that death many times occurred before the man had matured his little, and that he could therefore not will or convey what was granted him and that it could only be rightfully disposed of by the act of Congress, which provided for one wife only. I told him if Congress was too unjust or the nation too [-] to grant a man 160 acres of land for each family that he might constitutionally & therefore rightfully have they could certainly pass an act, saying "if a man who was entitled to 160 acres of land should die, leaving two, or more widows, the land or the proceed, thereof should be divided prorate between them all" adding that the present law did not bar their future legislation. [p.123] [ABRUPT END OF JOURNAL]
BIB: Fullmer, John Solomon. Diary (Ms 117, 1). pp. 33-117, 120-123. (CHL).